What types of allergies cause eczema
Undesirable effects from the use of cosmetic products often happen. These include soap, shampoo, moisturisers, deodorants, shaving products and make-up.
Undesirable effects include allergies, rashes, blisters, burning or other symptoms.
The products that cause most problems are fragrances, preservatives and hair dyes. Preservatives and fragrances can cause adverse effects, particularly in the form of rashes and other skin reactions.
Food allergy is a significant public health problem and is reported to affect % of adults and % of children in Europe, with an increasing incidence among children.
Changes in eating habits, with new imported products, more processed foods and increased travel can also own contributed to food reactions becoming more common. Food allergy occurs most often in those who own atopic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, asthma andhay fever.
Allergy is defined as an immunological response and is limited to food reactions that can be confirmed by immunological methods such as the detection of IgE antibodies in serum. Food allergies are triggered by food proteins and generally cause quick reactions. These reactions happen because the natural tolerance is broken. Symptoms are commonly seen in other organs than the stomach and intestines, such as the skin, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.
Hypersensitivity reactions generally cause intestinal symptoms. Common food allergens include legumes such as peanuts and nuts, flour, fish and shellfish. Cow’s milk, wheat and eggs often trigger allergies among children, but they generally grow out of these allergies by school age.
The incidence of severe reactions to food in Norway is unknown.
In , the National Register of Severe Allergic Reactions to Food was established to increase knowledge, and doctors own been encouraged to report severe patient reactions. As from January 1st the Register is no longer in operation.
There are several diverse types of skin allergies such as allergic contact dermatitis, urticaria (hives) and photoallergy. Clinical symptoms for allergic contact dermatitis often happen days after exposure to an allergen. Photoallergy symptoms may happen somewhat earlier than allergic contact dermatitis.
Urticaria often occurs within minutes after exposure.
The most common causes of skin allergies are exposure to metals and chemicals that can penetrate the skin, but proteins may also cause skin allergy. These substances are present in consumer products such as cosmetics and body care products, hair dyes, detergents, textiles and jewellery. The most common contact allergens are nickel, fragrances and thimerosal (preservative).
Approximately 20% of the population has a contact allergy.
Certain occupational groups are particularly vulnerable to developing skin allergies. These are professions with frequent hand washing and work with irritant and sensitising agents (e.g. rubber chemicals, fragrances, preservatives, dyes, metals).
Atopic dermatitis (sometimes called infantile eczema) is a chronic disease with an itchy rash that often appears in early childhood.
About 70% of children with atopic eczema grow out of it before adolescence. The trigger factors are unclear, but children with allergic and asthmatic parents own an increased risk of developing atopic dermatitis. A combination of genes and environment seems to be important.
How is eczema treated?
Eczema is controlled using a combination of therapies, depending on the severity of symptoms. Avoiding triggers is significant (for example, dye-sensitive individuals wash their clothes with dye-free detergent). Moisturizing the skin and controlling itchiness are essential for managing eczema.
In severe cases where open sores lead to infection, antibiotics are used to clear the infection.
People with atopic dermatitis often see an allergist to discuss and monitor their eczema management.
Respiratory allergies are caused by proteins in the air that are inhaled and trigger airway inflammation. They may be due to specific allergic reactions, or more general reactions to irritants such as smoke and fumes in the indoor and outdoor environment that can aggravate allergy symptoms.
There are numerous sources of respiratory allergies; home dust contains various components such as dust mites, pet allergens, pollen and particulates that can trigger asthma and allergies.
If humidity is too high, mould growth can happen, and the quantity of mould spores containing allergens will increase. Home dust mites thrive wherever it is boiling and humid, especially in mattresses and bedding. Mite faeces are the main cause of allergies. Pet allergens generally come from proteins from animal skin, fur, urine and saliva. The allergens often sit on little particles that can stay aloft for a endless time and thus spread over large areas.
The increase in allergic diseases may be related to climate change.
A warmer climate leads to a longer pollen season and therefore an increased incidence of respiratory allergies. Pollen can cause cross-allergies because there are similar proteins in pollen and plant foods such as fruits, vegetables and nuts, which will also increase allergic reactions to food.
Cross allergies, however, cause milder symptoms than primary allergies.
What is eczema?
Eczema is a skin disorder that causes itchiness and rash. The most common type is “atopic dermatitis”. Flare-ups can be triggered by environmental factors, or unknown causes. Severity depends on the individual. Some people may own mild itchiness and a few dry patches. Others, particularly young children, may own eczema covering much of the body.
There is currently no cure for eczema. Therapy is focused on preventing flare-ups, which can be caused by certain soaps, fabrics and skin products, as well as substances such as chlorine. Becoming overheated, or having moisture trapped between clothing and the skin (such as a wet bathing suit) can also be triggers for a flare-up.
Eczema and food allergy
There are numerous types of eczema and atopic dermatitis (also known as atopic eczema) is the most common.
The term “atopy refers to a hereditary tendency toward eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Numerous people with food allergies also own atopic eczema.
Sometimes, eczema is the first sign of atopy, followed by food allergy, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), and asthma.
The progression of these allergic diseases is referred to as the allergic march.
A kid with eczema and food allergy may be closely watched for signs of asthma as he or she grows, since the three conditions often (but not always) co-exist.
There is no cure for eczema, but its possible to manage the condition by keeping symptoms under control. Young children often outgrow atopic dermatitis, but it can persist or re-emerge in adulthood.
The rash that itches, or the itch that rashes?
Allergists often talk about the itch-scratch cycle of eczema. A person has an itch and scratches it, creating irritation and rash — which then makes the itch worse.
If an itch is scratched to the point of breaking the skin, infection may happen. Controlling the itch and controlling the scratch go hand-in-hand.
To hold an baby or young kid with eczema from scratching, parents are advised to hold the child’s nails short. Some children even wear mitts at night to protect their skin from being scratched.
- Eczema is a skin condition that causes redness and itching. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.
- There are diverse types of eczema. The most common is atopic dermatitis. Numerous people with food allergies own atopic dermatitis.
- It can be extremely challenging for parents to manage eczema in a baby or a young kid.
- Support groups and services exist in numerous communities, and your allergist can direct you to these resources.
These substances are called allergens, and the most common are proteins in pollen from trees and grasses, food, fur, dust mites or mould, in addition to metals and substances used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
An allergic reaction is an overreaction of the immune system to an allergen. Allergy development takes put in two stages, with an initial sensitisation or induction phase followed by an effector phase (see figure below).
Clinical symptoms of allergy only appear in the effector phase. Some people do not progress from the induction phase and will therefore not present clinical symptoms of allergy.
The figure shows the phases of allergy development