What to do if baby has peanut allergy
You may also own a blood test. This measures the quantity of a protein called IgE antibody which is produced as a result of an allergic reaction. You can read more about IgE reactions in the separate leaflet called Food Allergy and Intolerance
Medical history and examination
Your doctor may suspect that you own a nut allergy from your symptoms. Your doctor may then enquire a lot of questions. For example, the quantity and type of food that you ate which caused a reaction, how quickly the symptoms started, how severe they were, how endless they lasted, etc.
Skin prick test
A skin prick test may be done to assist confirm the allergy.
For this test, a drop of nut extract solution is placed on the skin, generally on the forearm. Then, a needle prick is made through the drop. This is generally painless as just the extremely surface of the skin is pricked. However, it is enough to let a tiny quantity of solution into your skin. If a reaction occurs, it happens within minutes.
- A reaction is considered to be ‘positive’ when the skin under the solution becomes red and itchy. A white, raised swelling called a wheal surrounds the red central area.
A wheal takes about minutes to reach its full size, and then fades over a few hours.
- A reaction is considered to be ‘negative’ when the skin remains normal. This means that you are not allergic to the substance in the solution.
Do not take antihistamines on the day of the test as they may dampen any allergic response during the test.
If other tests are not conclusive then your doctor may enquire you to take part in a food challenge. For this test you are given foods to eat that may or may not contain nuts. You will then be watched closely for minutes to see whether you own a reaction. Food challenges are always done at a hospital or specialised setting because of the risk of a severe reaction.
If you are found to be allergic to one type of nut, you may be tested for allergy to other nuts as well.
If you own an allergy to peanuts, you are more likely to own an allergy to tree nuts than a person who does not own a peanut allergy. Once an allergy has been confirmed, an allergy specialist will generally assist you to devise a plan to manage it. This plan will be individual to you and will take into account how severe your reaction is.
Can nut allergy be prevented?
In the past, the Department of Health advised that atopic pregnant and breast-feeding mothers and their infants should avoid peanuts. However, in , the Department of Health changed their advice. They found there was no evidence that eating or not eating nuts when pregnant made any difference to the chances of a kid developing allergy.
Since that time they own advised there is no need for pregnant or breastfeeding mothers to avoid nuts.
There is some evidence that introducing peanuts to the diet early on in the weaning process (from 6 months of age) may make a kid less likely to develop an allergy to them. Obviously whole peanuts are a choking hazard, so they need to be in a form which is safe for the baby (such as peanut butter).
How common is nut allergy and who gets it?
In the UK about 2 in children and about 1 in adults own an allergy to nuts.
The number of people with peanut allergy is growing.
Nut allergy is the most common type of severe food allergy. It often starts when children are extremely young. Most first allergic reactions take put when a kid is between 14 months and two years ancient. Unlike other food allergies such as milk allergy, nut allergy is something that you are unlikely to grow out of. Only about 1 in 5 people with a nut allergy will grow out of it, and these tend to be the people who own mild reactions.
If you own what is called atopy, or if atopy runs in your family, then you are more at risk of developing an allergy to nuts.
Atopy is the name for a group of allergic conditions that include hay fever, asthma and eczema. In specific, children who own eczema are more likely to develop a nut allergy. If you own an allergy to peanuts then you may also react to tree nuts.
What causes nut allergy?
If you are allergic to nuts, when you first come into contact with nuts your immune system reacts and prepares to fight. However, you don’t get any symptoms of a reaction. It is only when you come into contact with nuts for a second time that a full allergic reaction happens.
Most children who are allergic to nuts own the symptoms of an allergic reaction when they appear to be exposed to nuts for the first time. However, this is probably not their first exposure, but their second. They may already own come into contact with nuts through their mom, through either of the following:
- Whilst they were in the womb (uterus).
- Through breast milk if they were breast-fed.
Most people with nut allergy react after contact with little amounts (less than one nut) and some people may react to trace amounts.
This means that you don’t always own to eat nuts to own a reaction. A few people are so sensitive to nut allergens that a tiny quantity on their lips, or even standing next to someone eating peanuts, can be enough to start a reaction.
There are lots of diverse allergens but nuts cause some of the strongest and most severe reactions.
Doctors don’t yet know why this is.
What are the symptoms of a nut allergy?
Both peanuts and tree nuts can cause allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to nuts can vary from mild to extremely severe, and are sometimes life-threatening. Symptoms often start extremely quickly, within an hour of having come into contact with a nut, and sometimes within minutes. Reactions that take put more than four hours after coming into contact with nuts are unlikely to be an allergy.
Signs and symptoms of a mildallergic reaction can include:
- Nettle rash, or hives (urticaria).
- Colicky pains in your tummy (abdomen).
- Feeling sick.
- Your face swelling.
- Your mouth and lips tingling.
- A feeling of tightness around your throat.
Signs and symptoms of a more severeallergic reaction can include:
- A quick heart rate.
- General redness of your skin.
- Low blood pressure, which can cause you to feel faint or to collapse.
This severe reaction is called anaphylaxis and without quick treatment you would soon become unconscious.
A little number of people die every year as a result of this helpful of severe reaction, generally because they do not obtain treatment quickly enough. If you ponder you are having an anaphylactic reaction you need to call an ambulance straightaway and obtain immediate medical help.
About 1 in 3 people with a nut allergy own an initial reaction to the nut, followed by a second reaction between one and eight hours after the first. This is why it is significant to stay in hospital after an initial anaphylactic reaction.
What are the treatment options for nut allergy?
Principles of treatment
It is unlikely that you will always be capable to avoid contact with nuts and you may be accidentally exposed to nuts at any time.
So, be prepared:
1. Make certain that you, and others around you love your friends and family, know that you are allergic to nuts and what to do if an allergic reaction starts:
- If your kid has a nut allergy then make certain that anyone else who looks after your kid knows about it and knows what to do if a reaction starts. For example, nursery staff, babysitters, teachers and other parents. Your doctor — either your GP or a hospital doctor with special training in children’s medical care (a paediatrician) — will be capable to record a care plan.
This care plan will tell anyone looking after your kid what they should do if the kid has an allergic reaction.
- You should (or your kid should if they own an allergy) wear a medical emergency identification bracelet or equivalent that tells other people about the allergy.
2. If an allergic reaction starts, get the correct treatment quickly:
- These adrenaline (epinephrine) injections come in diverse doses for adults and children. They work by injecting adrenaline (epinephrine) into your thigh muscle when you press a button or jab it against your skin.
- If you own a severe allergy you must carry your adrenaline (epinephrine) injection with you at every times.
Some people hold adrenaline (epinephrine) in the places where they spend most of their time. For example, they hold it at home, at school or at work. Numerous people carry two injections ‘just in case’.
- Adrenaline (epinephrine) is given by an injection so that it can work straightaway. If you own a severe reaction to nuts you will be given an adrenaline (epinephrine) injection (like a pen). You will carry this with you every the time. Brand names include EpiPen®, Emerade® and Jext®.
- More serious reactions are treated with adrenaline (epinephrine) which, if given quickly, can reverse the symptoms of the reaction.
- Mild reactions can be treated with an antihistamine medicine.
- It is vitally significant that if an allergic reaction starts you get treatment as quickly as possible.
The sooner your reaction is treated, the better.
- Check the expiry date on the adrenaline (epinephrine) regularly. If it passes the expiry date, get a new one. Also, make certain that you know how to use it properly. Your family and friends should know how to use it too, in case you are not capable to.
Know what to do if you own an allergic reaction
1. Mild reactions:
- Take an antihistamine tablet as soon as possible.
You can purchase these at pharmacies or obtain them on prescription. Antihistamines block the action of histamine, the chemical released into your body during an allergic reaction. They generally take minutes to start working.
- If your reaction gets worse then get medical assist straightaway.
2. Severe (anaphylactic) reactions:
- In the ambulance or at the hospital you may also be given oxygen to assist your breathing, steroids to reduce any inflammation, and antihistamines to counter the allergic reaction.
- If you own asthma and own an inhaler, use it.
- Get assist and call an ambulance straightaway.
If possible, always own someone with you at every times if you own a reaction, even if you need to go to the toilet. For example, do this even if you feel ill or are being ill (vomiting).
- If you own an adrenaline (epinephrine) injection pen, use it.
- Some people may need more intensive treatment if the reaction is extremely severe.
Mild symptoms can final up to an hour but severe symptoms can final longer. You will need to stay in hospital until your doctor is certain you own fully recovered.
Avoid nuts wherever possible
Preventing an allergic reaction from happening in the first put is a key part of living with a nut allergy.
So, study to recognise foods that may contain nuts and avoid them. You may be referred to a dietician to assist with this. Advice may include:
1. Check the ingredients:
- Chinese, Thai and Indonesian dishes often use nuts and nut oil, particularly peanuts or peanut oil.
- Nuts and nut oils are used as ingredients in a wide range of foods. Take care with biscuits, cakes, pastries, desserts, ice cream, breakfast cereals, cereal bars, nut butters and spreads, confectionery, vegetarian dishes and salad dressings.
- Avoiding whole nuts is relatively simple.
What is more hard is avoiding nuts in processed foods. Nuts are not always obviously listed on ingredient labels. For example, peanut can be listed as groundnut, ground nut, monkey nut, mixed nuts, peanut butter, peanut oil, arachis oil and groundnut oil.
- Always check food labels, even for products you know, as ingredients can change.
- Get a list of nut-free foods from your local supermarket.
2. Take care when you are not preparing your food:
- If friends or family prepare food for you, make certain they know what you can’t eat.
- Do not eat anything you are unsure about.
- Avoid eating foods at buffets or from delicatessens or bakeries where it is simple for food to be contaminated by touching other foods containing nuts.
- When eating out, enquire staff which foods contain nuts and the risk of contamination of other foods.
If possible, speak to the chef, not the waiter or waitress.
- If your kid has an allergy to nuts then make certain that they do not share food with other children at parties and other group events. Take food for them.
Immunotherapy (desensitisation) is a treatment where you are given tiny amounts of the allergen which is then extremely gradually increased over time. The purpose is to build up tolerance to the allergen. This treatment has been used with some success to treat pollen and insect poison (venom) allergies.
But, at present it is not widely used to treat food allergy such as nut allergy because of the risk of anaphylaxis. However, some studies own shown some promising results, and the technique is used at some extremely specialist centres.
Peanut Allergy: Early Exposure Is Key to Prevention
Posted on by Dr. Francis Collins
Credit: Thinkstock (BananaStock, Kenishirotie)
With peanut allergy on the rise in the United States, you’ve probably heard parents strategizing about ways to hold their kids from developing this potentially dangerous condition. But is it actually possible to prevent peanut allergy, and, if so, how do you go about doing it?
There’s an entirely new strategy emerging now!
A group representing 26 professional organizations, advocacy groups, and federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has just issued new clinical guidelines aimed at preventing peanut allergy . The guidelines propose that parents should introduce most babies to peanut-containing foods around the time they start eating other solid foods, typically 4 to 6 months of age. While early introduction is especially significant for kids at specific risk for developing allergies, it is also recommended that high-risk infants—those with a history of severe eczema and/or egg allergy—undergo a blood or skin-prick test before being given foods containing peanuts.
The test results can assist to determine how, or even if, peanuts should be introduced in the youngsters’ diets.
This recommendation is turning older guidelines on their head. In the past, pediatricians often advised parents to delay introducing peanuts and other common causes of food allergies into their kids’ diets. But in , the thinking began shifting when a panel of food allergy experts concluded insufficient evidence existed to show that delaying the introduction of potentially problematic foods actually protected kids .
Still, there wasn’t a strategy waiting to assist prevent peanut or other food allergies.
As highlighted in a previous blog entry, the breakthrough came in with evidence from the NIH-funded Learning Early about Peanut Allergy (LEAP) trial . That trial, involving hundreds of babies under a year ancient at high risk for developing peanut allergy, established that kids could be protected by regularly eating a favorite peanut butter-flavored Israeli snack called Bamba.
A follow-up study later showed those kids remained allergy-free even after avoiding peanuts for a year .
Under the new recommendations, published simultaneously in six journals including the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, every infants who don’t already test positive for a peanut allergy are encouraged to eat peanut-enriched foods soon after they’ve tried a few other solid foods. The guidelines are the first to offer specific recommendations for allergy prevention based on a child’s risk for peanut allergy:
- Infants at high risk for peanut allergy—based on severe eczema and/or egg allergy—are suggested to start consuming peanut-enriched foods between 4 to 6 months of age, but only after parents check with their health care providers.
Infants already showing signs of peanut sensitivity in blood and/or skin-prick tests should attempt peanuts for the first time under the supervision of their doctor or allergist. In some cases, test results indicating a strong reaction to peanut protein might lead a specialist to recommend that a specific kid avoid peanuts.
- Infants with mild to moderate eczema should incorporate peanut-containing foods into their diets by about 6 months of age. It’s generally OK for them to own those first bites of peanut at home and without prior testing.
- Infants without eczema or any other food allergy aren’t likely to develop an allergy to peanuts.
To be on the safe side, it’s still a excellent thought for them to start eating peanuts from an early age.
Once peanut-containing foods own been consumed safely, regular exposure is key to allergy prevention. The guidelines recommend that infants—and particularly those at the greatest risk of allergies—eat about 2 grams of peanut protein (the quantity in 2 teaspoons of peanut butter) 3 times a week.
Of course, it’s never a excellent thought to give infants whole peanuts, which are a choking hazard. Infants should instead get their peanuts in prepared peanut-containing foods or by stirring peanut powder into other familiar foods.
They might also attempt peanut butter spread on bread or crackers.
In recent years, peanut allergy in the U.S. has almost quadrupled, making it the leading cause of death due to severe, food-related allergic reactions. The hope is that, with widespread implementation of these new guidelines, numerous new cases of peanut allergy can now be prevented.
 Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel.
Togias A, Cooper SF, Acebal ML, et al. Pediatr Dermatol. Jan;34(1):e1-e
 Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel., Boyce JA, Assaad A, Burks AW, Jones SM, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Plaut M, Cooper SF, Fenton MJ, Arshad SH, Bahna SL, Beck LA, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Camargo CA Jr, Eichenfield L, Furuta GT, Hanifin JM, Jones C, Kraft M, Levy BD, Lieberman P, Luccioli S, McCall KM, Schneider LC, Simon RA, Simons FE, Teach SJ, Yawn BP, Schwaninger JM. J Allergy Clin Immunol.
 Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy. Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF, Brough HA, Phippard D, Basting M, Feeney M, Turcanu V, Sever ML, Gomez Lorenzo M, Plaut M, Lack G; the LEAP Study Team. N Engl J Med. Feb
 Effect of Avoidance on Peanut Allergy after Early Peanut Consumption. Du Toit G, Sayre PH, Roberts G, Sever ML, Lawson K, Bahnson HT, Brough HA, Santos AF, Harris KM, Radulovic S, Basting M, Turcanu V, Plaut M, Lack G; Immune Tolerance Network LEAP-On Study Team..N Engl J Med.
Guidelines for Clinicians and Patients for Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH)
Food Allergy (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH)
Learning Early about Peanut Allergy (LEAP) Study
NIH Support: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Have an Emergency Plan
If you own a nut or peanut allergy, you and a parent should create a plan for how to handle a reaction, just in case.
That way your teachers, the school nurse, your basketball coach, your friends — everyone will know what a reaction looks love and how to respond.
To immediately treat anaphylaxis, doctors recommend that people with a nut or peanut allergy hold a shot of epinephrine (say: eh-puh-NEH-frin) with them. This helpful of epinephrine injection comes in an easy-to-carry container. You and your parent can work out whether you carry this or someone at school keeps it on hand for you. You’ll also need to identify a person who will give you the shot.
You might desire to own antihistamine medicine on hand too for mild reactions.
If anaphylaxis is happening, this medicine is never a substitute for epinephrine. After getting an epinephrine shot, you need to go to the hospital or other medical facility, where they will hold an eye on you for at least 4 hours and make certain the reaction is under control and does not come back.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Nut Allergy?
When someone with a peanut or tree nut allergy has something with nuts in it, the body releases chemicals love histamine (pronounced: HISS-tuh-meen).
This can cause symptoms such as:
- a drop in blood pressure
- itchy, watery, or swollen eyes
- dizziness or fainting
- throat tightness
- trouble breathing
- anxiety or a feeling something bad is happening
Reactions to foods, love peanuts and tree nuts, can be diverse.
It every depends on the person — and sometimes the same person can react differently at diverse times.
In the most serious cases, a nut or peanut allergy can cause anaphylaxis (say: an-uh-fuh-LAK-sis). Anaphylaxis is a sudden, life-threatening allergic reaction. A person’s blood pressure can drop, breathing tubes can narrow, and the tongue can swell.
People at risk for this helpful of a reaction own to be extremely careful and need a plan for handling emergencies, when they might need to use special medicine to stop these symptoms from getting worse.
What Happens With a Tree Nut or Peanut Allergy?
Your immune system normally fights infections.
But when someone has a nut allergy, it overreacts to proteins in the nut. If the person eats something that contains the nut, the body thinks these proteins are harmful invaders and responds by working extremely hard to fight off the invader. This causes an allergic reaction.
How Is a Tree Nut or Peanut Allergy Treated?
There is no special medicine for nut or peanut allergies and numerous people don’t outgrow them. The best treatment is to avoid the nut. That means not eating that nut, and also avoiding the nut when it’s mixed in foods. (Sometimes these foods don’t even taste nutty! Would you believe chili sometimes contains nuts to assist make it thicker?)
Staying safe means reading food labels and paying attention to what they tell about how the food was produced.
Some foods don’t contain nuts, but are made in factories that make other items that do contain nuts. The problem is the equipment can be used for both foods, causing "cross-contamination." That’s the same thing that happens in your own home if someone spreads peanut butter on a sandwich and dips that same knife into the jar of jelly.
After checking the ingredients list, glance on the label for phrases love these:
- "may contain tree nuts"
- "produced on shared equipment with tree nuts or peanuts"
People who are allergic to nuts also should avoid foods with these statements on the label.
Some of the highest-risk foods for people with peanut or tree nut allergy include:
- Asian and African foods
- ice cream
- cookies and baked goods
- sauces (nuts may be used to thicken dishes)
Talk to your allergist about how to stay safe in the school cafeteria. Also enquire about how you should handle other peanut encounters, love at restaurants or stadiums where people are opening peanut shells.
People with nut allergies generally won’t own a reaction if they breathe in little particles. That’s because the food generally has to be eaten to cause a reaction.
Posted In: Health, Science
Tags: allergy, Bamba, kid health, eczema, egg allergy, food allergy, infants, LEAP, Learning Early about Peanut Allergy, nih dir, peanut, peanut allergies, peanut allergy, peanuts, pediatrics
en españolAlergia a los frutos secos y a los cacahuetes
Oh, nuts! They certain can cause you trouble if you’re allergic to them — and a growing number of kids are these days.
So what helpful of nuts are we talking about?
Peanuts, for one, though they aren’t truly a nut. They’re a legume (say: LEH-gyoom), love peas and lentils. A person also could be allergic to nuts that grow on trees, such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, and pistachios.
When you ponder of allergies, you might picture lots of sneezing and runny noses. But unlike an allergy to spring flowers, a nut or peanut allergy can cause difficulty breathing and other extremely serious health problems. That’s why it’s very important for someone with a nut or peanut allergy to avoid eating nuts and peanuts, which can be tough because they’re in lots of foods.
What Will the Doctor Do?
If your doctor thinks you might own a nut or peanut allergy, he or she will probably send you to see a doctor who specializes in allergies.
The (allergy specialist) will enquire you about past reactions and how endless it takes between eating the nut or peanut and getting the symptoms, such as hives.
The allergist may also enquire whether anyone else in your family has allergies or other allergy conditions, such as eczema or asthma. Researchers aren’t certain why some people own food allergies and others don’t, but they sometimes run in families.
The allergist may also desire to do a skin test. This is a way of seeing how your body reacts to a extremely little quantity of the nut that is giving you trouble.
The allergist will use a liquid extract of the nut that seems to be causing you symptoms.
During skin testing, a little scratch on your skin is made (it will be a quick pinch, but there are no needles!). That’s how just a little of the liquid nut gets into your skin. If you get a reddish, itchy, raised spot, it shows that you may be allergic to that food or substance.
Skin tests are the best test for food allergies, but if more information is needed, the doctor may also order a blood test. At the lab, the blood will be mixed with some of the food or substance you may be allergic to and checked for antibodies.
It’s significant to remember that even though the doctor tests for food allergies by carefully exposing you to a extremely little quantity of the food, you should not attempt this at home! The only put for an allergy test is at the allergist’s office, where they are specially trained and could give you medicine correct away if you had a reaction.
What Else Should I Know?
If you discover out you own a nut or peanut allergy, don’t be bashful about it.
It’s significant to tell your friends, family, coaches, and teachers at school. The more people who know, the better off you are because they can assist you stay away from the nut that causes you problems.
Telling the server in a restaurant is also really significant because he or she can steer you away from dishes that contain nuts. Likewise, a coach or teacher would be capable to select snacks for the group that don’t contain nuts.
It’s grand to own people love your parents, who can assist you avoid nuts, but you’ll also desire to start learning how to avoid them on your own.
What is nut allergy?
An allergy occurs when your body’s immune system, which normally fights infection, overreacts to a substance called an allergen.
Most allergens are not obviously harmful and they own no effect on people who are not allergic to them. Allergic reactions to allergens can vary from mild to life-threatening.
Both peanuts and tree nuts (for example, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, Brazils and pistachios) can act as allergens, and can cause an allergic reaction in some people. When you come into contact with something that you are allergic to (an allergen), a group of cells in your body, called mast cells, release a substance called histamine.
Histamine causes the tiny blood vessels in the tissues of your body to leak fluid which causes the tissues to swell. This results in a number of diverse symptoms.
Strictly speaking, peanuts are not nuts, they are legumes, in the same family as peas and beans. Peanuts grow underground whereas other nuts grow on trees. The expression nut in this leaflet can mean either tree nuts or peanuts.
See also the separate leaflets calledAllergies and Food Allergy and Intolerance for more information about allergy in general.