What over the counter medicine is good for dog allergies
Anaphylactic shock, also called anaphylaxis, is a severe, life-threatening reaction to certain allergens. Body tissues may swell, including tissues in the throat. Anaphylactic shock is also characterized by a sudden drop in blood pressure. The following are the most common symptoms of anaphylactic shock. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Other symptoms may include:
Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
Itching and hives over most of the body
Swelling of the throat and tongue or tightness in throat
Loss of consciousness
Pain or cramps
Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
Abnormal heart rate (too quick or too slow)
Anaphylactic shock can be caused by an allergic reaction to a drug, food, serum, insect venom, allergen extract, or chemical.
Some people who are aware of their allergic reactions or allergens carry an emergency anaphylaxis kit that contains injectable epinephrine (a drug that stimulates the adrenal glands and increases the rate and force of the heartbeat).
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Allergies to cats are one of the most common allergies among individuals.
Among the eight known cat allergens, the most prominent allergen is secretoglobinFel d 1, and it is produced in the anal glands, salivary glands, and, mainly, in sebaceous glands of cats, and is ubiquitous in the United States, even in households without cats. Allergic symptoms associated with cats include coughing, wheezing, chest tightening, itching, nasal congestion, rash, watering eyes, sneezing, chapped lips, and similar symptoms.
In worst case scenarios, allergies to cats can develop into more life-threatening conditions such as rhinitis and mild to severe forms of asthma. Despite these symptoms, there are numerous types of solutions to mitigate the allergic effects of cats, including medications, vaccines, and home remedies. Hypoallergenic cats are another solution for individuals who desire to pets without the allergic consequences.
Furthermore, prospective pet owners can reduce allergic reactions by selecting cats of a specific gender or color, which are associated with a lower production of allergens.
Coping with allergies
Regularly bathing the cat may remove significant amounts of allergens from the fur. After bathing, the levels of Fel d 1 on cat skin and fur return within two days of bathing. In addition, amounts of Fel d 1 in the surrounding air return after a 24 hour period of bathing the cat. Feeding the cat a high quality diet with plenty of omega-3 fatty acids will assist hold the jacket healthy and minimize dander.
Cat allergies can often be controlled with over the counter or prescription medications.
Antihistamines and decongestants may provide allergy relief.
Allergens that are airborne survive for months or even years by themselves, hence removing anything that can trap and hold the allergens (carpet, rugs, pillows) and cleaning regularly and thoroughly with HEPA filters and electrostatic air purifier systems reduces risk. Frequent hand washing, especially after handling the cat, and washing hands prior to touching eyes, nose, or mouth, and limiting the cat’s access to certain rooms, such as the bedroom or other rooms where much time is spent, may also reduce allergic reactions.
Some allergy sufferers discover relief in allergen immunotherapy, a periodic injection therapy designed to suppress the body’s natural immune responses to the cat allergens. In its early stages, AIT utilized cat dander extract, which consists of microscopic dry skin flakes of cats, but later resorted to Fel d 1 due to issues of standardization. One way researchers use Fel 1 d in immunotherapy is through the alteration of its chemical structure. Disulfide bonds between Fel d 1 chains were broken to reduce the binding between the allergen and immunoglobulin E (IgE), inhibiting an allergic response.
Development of other treatments
Development of several human vaccines own been abandoned, including Allervax and Cat-SPIRE. As of , the Swiss company HypoPet AG is developing a vaccine it hopes could be istered to cats to reduce the emission of Fel d 1 proteins.
Body’s response to the allergen
As the allergen enters through the nose or mouth, antigen cells analyze the allergen and present antigenic peptides to helper T cells. The helper T cells acquire a type 2 phenotype (Th2) and produce IgE due the presence of specific cytokines.
If Th2 is expressed too much, the symptoms of cat allergies appear. Inhaled cat allergens will activate mast cells, causing coughing, increased mucous production, and airway constriction.
How does a person become allergic?
Allergens can be inhaled, ingested, or enter through the skin. Common allergic reactions, such as hay fever, certain types of asthma, and hives are linked to an antibody produced by the body called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Each IgE antibody can be extremely specific, reacting against certain pollens and other allergens. In other words, a person can be allergic to one type of pollen, but not another.
When a susceptible person is exposed to an allergen, the body starts producing a large quantity of similar IgE antibodies. The next exposure to the same allergen may result in an allergic reaction. Symptoms of an allergic reaction will vary depending on the type and quantity of allergen encountered and the manner in which the body’s immune system reacts to that allergen.
Allergies can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status.
Generally, allergies are more common in children.
However, a first-time occurrence can happen at any age, or recur after numerous years of remission. Hormones, stress, smoke, perfume, or environmental irritants may also frolic a role in the development or severity of allergies.
Eight cat allergens own been recognized by the World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub‐Committee. Fel d 1 is the most prominent cat allergen, accounting for 96% of human cat allergies. The remaining cat allergens are Fel d , with Fel d 4, an urinary protein, occurring the most in humans among the other seven allergens.
Every cats produce Fel d 1 including hypoallergenic cats. The main way these allergens are spread is through a cat’s saliva or dander, which gets stuck on clothing. A study found that 63% of people allergic to cats own antibodies against Fel d 4.
Fel d 1
Fel d 1 is the most dominant cat allergen. It is part of the secretoglobulin family, which are proteins found only in mammals. Fel d 1 is primarily secreted through the sebaceous glands and can be found on the skin and fur of a cat.
It is less commonly secreted through the salivary gland, lacrimal glands, skin and anal glands.
Fel d 4 and Fel d 7
Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 are cat lipocalins. Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 are one of the most common cat allergens after Fel d 1. Fel d 4 is primarily found in cats’ saliva and is associated with atopic dermatitis in children with cat allergies.
Symptoms of an allergic reaction to cats range from mild to severe, and include swollen, red, itchy, and watery eyes; nasal congestion, itchy nose, sneezing, chronic sore throat or itchy throat, coughing, wheezing, asthma, hay fever, hives or rash on the face or chest, or itchy skin.
If a cat has scratched, licked, or bitten someone who is allergic to cats, redness and sometimes even swelling of the affected area will happen. For those severely allergic, a reaction may resemble that of someone with a severe food allergy, and such reactions require emergency medical care.
What is the immune system?
The purpose of the immune system is to defend itself and hold microorganisms, such as certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi, out of the body, and to destroy any infectious microorganisms that do invade the body. The immune system is made up of a complicated and vital network of cells and organs that protect the body from infection.
The organs involved with the immune system are called the lymphoid organs.
They affect growth, development, and the release of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
The blood vessels and lymphatic vessels are significant parts of the lymphoid organs. They carry the lymphocytes to and from diverse areas in the body. Each lymphoid organ plays a role in the production and activation of lymphocytes.
Lymphoid organs include:
Thymus (two lobes that join in front of the trachea behind the breast bone)
Blood vessels (the arteries, veins, and capillaries through which blood flows)
Adenoids (two glands located at the back of the nasal passages)
Lymph nodes (small organs shaped love beans, which are located throughout the body and join via the lymphatic vessels)
Spleen (a fist-sized organ located in the abdominal cavity)
Appendix (a little tube that is connected to the large intestine)
Bone marrow (the soft, fatty tissue found in bone cavities)
Peyer’s patches (lymphoid tissue in the little intestine)
Lymphatic vessels (a network of channels throughout the body that carries lymphocytes to the lymphoid organs and bloodstream)
Tonsils (two oval masses in the back of the throat)