What is modal fabric allergies

The following is adapted from the book «Fake Silk: The Lethal History of Viscose Rayon.»

When I tell that I own been writing a book on rayon, the initial response frequently is, “Radon? That’s radiation, isn’t it?”

My attempt at a clarifying follow-up and the ensuing exchange typically runs: «Not radon, rayon, the synthetic textile.»

«Oh, didn’t they stop making that years ago — it was invented for parachutes or something in World War II, right?»

«Actually, rayon has been around since the turn of the final century — about 1900—and it’s still being made. Maybe you know it better as viscose?»


I didn’t know that was rayon. I thought viscose was a green product, not a synthetic.»

“Viscose rayon is based on cellulose. That part may be ‘green,’ but the chemical used to make the viscose isn’t. It’s a toxic chemical called carbon disulfide.»

«Does that mean viscose isn’t safe to wear? I’d better go through my wardrobe!»

«No,» I reassure at this point. «It’s only the workers who make it that suffer, and maybe the surrounding environment.» Consumer angst allayed, the conversation generally turns to some other topic.

I understand fully. Occupational disease is not the standard stuff of casual conversation.

Admittedly, viscose is beautiful far from central to almost anyone’s thoughts. Moreover, carbon disulfide, the toxic agent prerequisite to the making of viscose, is an unknown entity to anyone but a practicing chemist. Even most physicians own never heard of carbon disulfide unless they happen to remember it from an organic chemistry lab class they were forced to suffer through in premed. But the tale of viscose manufacturing and viscose-caused disease, by rights, should not be obscure. It deserves to be every bit as familiar as the cautionary tales of asbestos insulation, leaded paint, or the mercury-tainted seafood in Minimata Bay.

Throughout most of the 20th century, viscose rayon manufacturing was inextricably linked to widespread, severe and often lethal illness among those employed in making it.

Viscose is behind another product closely related to rayon — cellophane — and both rely on carbon disulfide as their key manufacturing constituent. Viscose, a technological innovation in its day, once was a extremely large trade. In fact, it was one of the first truly multinational corporate enterprises, having achieved this status in the period just before World War I. A bit later in the 20th century, during the Grand Depression, the viscose trade did not suffer appreciably. Rather, it flourished. Viscose went on to assume a highly profitable position as a strategic matériel on both sides in World War II.

Throughout most of the 20th century, viscose rayon manufacturing was inextricably linked to widespread, severe and often lethal illness among those employed in making it.

Peace finally came; viscose went from strength to strength.

For the Courtaulds company (phoenix of the post-imperial British textile industry) and for the behemoth state-owned enterprises of the Eastern bloc, rayon was pivotal. During the same period in the United States, DuPont held on to its lucrative near monopoly on cellophane, fighting an antitrust ruling every the way to the Supreme Court. After the industry’s midcentury apogee, viscose manufacturing found itself in the vanguard of those hazardous industrial processes exported to the developing world, starting in the 1960s and continuing through the decades that followed. Even now, viscose is still extremely much with us. Its successful rebranding as a renewable, eco-friendly product cleverly sidesteps the inconvenient reality that carbon disulfide, whether mixed with soft wood pulp or bamboo or straw, is anything but green.

The basic industrial manufacturing steps employed in making viscose never own been much of a trade secret.

Cellulose wood pulp is treated with caustic soda at a high pH; carbon disulfide is added to that solution; the stir is churned, allowed to «ripen» and then mixed with more caustics to form a syrupy semiliquid that is the eponymous viscose of the process. The viscose syrup is forced through tiny spinning nozzles submerged in a bath of sulfuric acid, love sprinklers irrigating a Hadean garden. It is in this unkind environment that the extruded filaments of viscose rayon fibers coagulate and grow. Replace the tiny spinning holes with a endless, thin slit and one produces viscose-based film (that is, cellophane).

Along the way there own been variations on this theme, but the basic tale line has stayed the same.

Carbon disulfide has remained a constant in the stir.

What is modal fabric allergies

This chemical has the almost unique ability to engage cellulose molecules, lining them up for guidance into a new form. Then, at just the correct moment, the carbon disulfide lets go of the cellulose.

What is modal fabric allergies

Unless the process is engineered with care, the put where the «carbon disulfide lets go» is directly into the factory air breathed by viscose workers, with the relax wafted out into the surrounding environment. Just as the basic process for making viscose is well established, the most dramatic effect of carbon disulfide on humans has been endless appreciated. For more than 150 years, considerably in advance of rayon’s invention, the chemical’s potent and special toxicity has been clearly recognized. Carbon disulfide’s industrial debut was as a vulcanizing agent in the rubber trade, back in the middle of the 19th century. Trouble was noted extremely soon after the chemical was first introduced.

The effect was hard to miss: carbon disulfide exposure led to acute insanity in those it poisoned.

In the numerous years that followed, more and more medical evidence documented in exquisite detail the numerous ways in which carbon disulfide adversely affects the nervous system.

In the numerous years that followed, more and more medical evidence documented in exquisite detail the numerous ways in which carbon disulfide adversely affects the nervous system. Besides candid insanity, poisoning can be manifested in subtler personality changes.

Carbon disulfide causes toxic degenerative brain disease and acts by damaging the sensory capacity of nerves (including those responsible for vision). After years of exposure, even more insidious carbon disulfide damage appears through increased risk of heart disease and stroke. Only in recent decades own these latter effects been established conclusively. Sophisticated epidemiological investigation was required to confirm the unusual pattern of individual cases that were occurring among viscose workers: disease that was happening both too frequently and among those at too young an age typically to suffer from these problems.

Despite its shocking legacy, viscose’s history is almost completely unknown.

Even those otherwise well versed in issues of public health are largely unaware of this tale.

What is modal fabric allergies

Yet it is a history hiding in plain sight. In large part, I am motivated by a desire to memorialize the terrible suffering that has occurred. Almost everyone not only knows about radon — unlike rayon — and numerous can even name a specific victim: Madame Curie, who succumbed to leukemia, almost assuredly due to her occupational exposure to radiation. I desire those who paid the full price for carbon disulfide’s use to be as well remembered. And I intend to name names.

This may not be possible for the unrecognized thousands whom carbon disulfide made ill, although here and there personal traces of individuals can be detected. It is far easier, however, to identify the perpetrators. Indeed, some of them are still in trade today, albeit after having been renamed, acquired, spun off and then remerged through a string of new, also-known-as names and trade acronyms. I also believe that this past history is highly relevant to other manufacturing innovations of today and tomorrow, processes that, love viscose production, may endanger worker health, threaten to degrade environmental quality, or compromise consumer product safety.

«Fake Silk» is most certainly about illness, about the disease and death that the viscose industry caused in its factories.

And it is about technological innovation, an engine fueled by carbon disulfide that churned out novel products for an eager consumer public. Fake Silk is also about economics. After every, this was an industry that helped coin a new term, «duopoly.» Referring to a market with only two sellers, duopoly characterized the comfortable arrangement between DuPont and Courtaulds’ U.S. subsidiary in divvying up the lucrative American viscose trade. More than that, economic profit has always been at the heart of viscose’s power, whether that was parlayed by robber barons, war profiteers, state capitalists or, in our own time, savvy players in a globalized market. Yet most of every, «Fake Silk» is about people.

Some of them are truly despicable, but numerous were honorable women and men and more than a few were fairly heroic. In just over a century of viscose’s history, five generations own toiled in it and, before that, three worked with carbon disulfide–tainted rubber. This may not be the full 10 generations that traditionally mark the passage of time from Adam to Noah, but it is still a significant slice of the human experience.

What is modal fabric allergies

I know that I cannot do full justice to that, but I hope never to lose sight of the genuine people who lived the tale told in these pages.

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CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas — If you own a food sensitivity or intolerance, the reaction is triggered by the digestive system.

When you own a food allergy, your immune system causes the reaction.

“A food sensitivity you might just feel a little bit of nausea, you might even own a little bit of vomiting,» said Corpus Christi Medical Middle Emergency Room Assistant Medical Director Dr. Kelly Campbell. «A person who has a food allergy to something love, tell, peanuts, that is a extremely common allergy; you actually get a system wide response. You will get hives, itching, your mouth may become tingly and you will own trouble breathing.”

Food allergies are on the rise in the U.S., affecting almost 15 million people.

Every three minutes, a food allergy reaction sends someone to the emergency room.

“If you feel that you own any helpful of problems breathing, if you own wheezing, if you own a rash over your body, if you any helpful swelling in the airway, this is a medical emergency, and you need to get to the emergency department and be evaluated,” said Campbell.

People with food sensitivity can still eat the food without serious consequences, but for someone with an allergy, touching, inhaling, or ingesting even a little quantity of the allergenic food love nuts, peanuts, tree nuts, walnuts, shrimp or other shellfish can be dangerous.

“And sometimes it is even so severe that your lips and tongue start swelling up, and you can actually go into what is called anaphylactic shock,» said Campbell.

«Anaphylactic shock is something where your blood pressure starts dropping, your heart rate starts going up, and you become unconscious. This is where, in the emergency department, we need to do quick action with certain medications and protecting that airway.”

And for people at home with these types of allergies, they should own an EpiPen shut by.

“It is an epinephrine auto injector that you can take yourself,» Dr. Campbell said. «This is life-saving for those folks who own these type of allergies.”

If you ponder you own a food allergy, there are ways to discover out, such as taking a skin test.

They are typically given by an allergist.

The most common side effects of a food allergy are:

  1. Swelling of the tongue
  2. Stomach pain and/or vomiting
  3. Dizziness
  4. Trouble swallowing
  5. Hives, generally accompanied by swelling and itching
  6. Shortness of breath
  7. Anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening reaction that can impair breathing and send the body into shock.

Symptoms of intolerance are every digestive-related. These can include:

  1. constipation
  2. diarrhea
  3. cramping
  4. gas and bloating
  5. nausea

How to Prevent Symptoms:

Learn which foods — and how much — cause you to own symptoms.

Either avoid the food or only own as much as you can without triggering symptoms.

When you eat out, enquire your server about how your meal will be prepared. It may not always be clear from the menu whether some dishes contain problem foods.

Learn to read food labels and check the ingredients for trigger foods. Don’t forget to check condiments and seasonings. They may own MSG or another additive that can cause symptoms

You might ponder thread count and hand-feel are the only things that matter when buying sheets.

But when you’re creating a healthy, toxin-free bed it’s essential to know what sheets are made of and how they’re processed. Here are 4 things to consider when shopping for healthier alternatives to conventional sheets:

1. Chemical-Free

A label on new sheets tells us the fiber content, thread count and care instructions – that’s it. Unfortunately, the manufacturer is not required to list what chemicals they use to make the sheets. Why does it matter?

What is modal fabric allergies

Numerous chemicals are used to conventionally process the yarn and finish the fabric, numerous of which are raising serious concerns from scientists, doctors and the public about toxicity and the adverse effects on our health. For non-toxic bedding, make certain you know how your sheets are processed.

You can drastically minimize chemical exposure from sheets when you:

  1. Buyers beware:  sheets labeled simply “organic cotton” are not certified organic. This means the fiber might own been grown organically but it does not mean the fabric was processed and finished without toxic chemicals.
  2. Avoid synthetic fiber sheets such as polyester microfiber.

    Polyester is a type of plastic, which is created via a chain of intensive chemical processes. Studies support claims that certain chemicals used in polyester manufacturing contribute to our body burden in ways that we are just beginning to understand. The chemicals used to color and finish polyester sheets may include formaldehyde, chlorine bleach, carcinogenic and allergy-inducing dyes and heavy metals, every of which are known to be damaging to our health and the environment.

  3. Buy Oeko-Tex certified sheets. The Oeko-Tex Standard 100 standard screens for harmful substances present in the finished textile product — it tests only the finish product, not the processing.

    When bamboo viscose sheets, for example, are certified by Oeko-Tex it means they pose no risk to your health. This certification does NOT mean the fiber was grown organically or processed into fabric using certified organic methods.

  4. Buy GOTS certified organic cotton sheets. The Global Organic Textile Standard ensures no harmful or toxic chemicals are used throughout the entire process of turning the fiber into fabric. It also means the cotton fiber was grown certified organic.

    When you purchase GOTS certified organic cotton sheets you don’t own to worry about chemical off gassing or surface irritants.

  5. Avoid cotton sheets labeled “Wrinkle-Free”, “Easy Care” and “Permanent Press”. These labels indicate the fabric has been treated with formaldehyde resin, one of the most toxic chemical fabric finishes and it’s designed NOT to wash out.
  6. Buy sustainably produced sheets. Some sheets are non-toxic but are not certified organic or certified chemical-free. Hemp and flax (linen) sheets are excellent examples when they’re manufactured via sustainable methods. This means these eco-friendly fibers are grown without the need for harmful herbicides and pesticides.

    The fiber/fabric is minimally processed and finished without harmful chemical softeners, chlorine bleach and heavy metal dyes.

2. Natural Fiber

The most comfortable sheets to sleep in are made of 100% natural fiber such as cotton, linen, hemp and silk as well as manufactured cellulose fiber such as bamboo viscose. They breathe, wick moisture and are soothing to the touch. These fibers make the healthiest options for sheets when they are free of chemical finishes as mentioned above.

3. Comfortable Weave

Five common weaves are used to make most sheets no matter if they’re organic or conventionally produced. Which one is correct for you?

You’ll know it when you feel it. Each one has its own unique texture or “hand”, which greatly contributes to how the sheets feel and act out. Under is a description of each.

  1. Jersey: a soft, stretchy knit sheet that feels love your favorite T-shirt.
  2. Sateen: a buttery soft sheet with subtle luster and a warmer feel than percale.
  3. Flannel: brushed to create a fuzzy surface on both sides of the fabric making it the coziest and warmest sheet.
  4. Percale: a crisp, smooth sheet that feels cool against the skin — ideal for warm sleepers and summer weather.
  5. Jacquard: known as the most opulent sheet fabric because it’s woven with an all-over design that varies from front to back giving the sheet a weighty, luxurious drape.


Quality, Not Thread Count

Despite favorite belief, there is no intrinsic worth to a higher thread count sheet — the number of horizontal and vertical threads in one square inch of woven fabric. What’s significant when buying sheets is the feel of the fabric, which depends on the integrity of the yarn and the weave (not thread count), as well as the quality of the chemical-free finished product.

Persons who suffer with dermatitis or sensitive skin own a hard time living day to day avoiding allergens and the dreaded rash, itching and discomfort that comes with it.

I own sensitive skin and prone to develop contact dermatitis at any time often reacting to something next to my skin that I own used for endless periods of time. I recently had to discard my favorite pair of pants after months of developing a rash on my stomach and side whenever I wore them. How could this be I said to myself, of every the things in the world to own, why did I inherit this strange skin?

While researching the matter I came across some exciting information regarding contact dermatitis and clothing. It seems there are fairly a few people who develop contact dermatitis from formaldehyde resins which are used for textile finishes. Apparently it’s beautiful common in women but men can also develop the condition if they own sensitive skin.

I was amazed and had no thought that formaldehyde was used on fabrics. Can you imagine being allergic to your clothes? If you are experiencing a chronic recurring rash on various part of your body, particularly where clothes fit tightly you may desire to contact your Dermatologist and request testing for this sensitivity. The rash can get particularly irritated from perspiration and in areas where the friction of the fabric rubs against the skin.

According to the American Contact Dermatitis Society common eruption sites include the posterior neck, upper back, lateral thorax (part of the body between the head or neck and abdomen), waistband and flexor (fingers) surfaces. It can however appear in other areas love the forehead if you wear a cap that’s been treated with formaldehyde.

Formaldehyde is used to make clothing that is wrinkle resistant (permanent press) and these can release significant amounts of the substance.

The American Contact Dermatitis Society states that rayon, blended cotton, corduroy, wrinkle-resistant 100% cotton, and any synthetic blended polymer are likely to own been treated with formaldehyde resins. Women’s clothing also includes lingerie and undergarments.

Many individuals are allergic to formaldehyde and know to avoid personal care products that contain formaldehyde releasing preservatives. Hold in mind that numerous pharmaceuticals including OTC drugs also use these same preservatives so it’s not limited to skin care products.

For those sensitive to formaldehyde clothing can also be a stong source of irritation.

Each country has its own manufacturing standards for acceptable levels for formaldehyde resins. A low indicator of formaldehyde releasing resin would be 75 ppm which is the Japanese standard, the US standard is somewhere near 300ppm, fairly a difference.

Fabrics safe to wear: 100% silk, 100% linen (if it wrinkles easy), 100% polyester, 100% acrylic, 100% nylon, spandex, flannel (soft), wool (may cause irritation) and denim.

Do not wear these fabrics: Permanent press, wrinkle resistant, color-fast, stain-resistant, blends (including rayon, polyester-cotton), corduroy or shrink-proof wool.

It is suggested that you read the labels in your existing clothing and separate them in your closet so you will know what’s safe to wear. Always opt for loose fitting clothing since friction and perspiration can cause the condition to flare. Read the labels in any new clothing before you purchase. Clothes made in Japan are the safest and companies that sell clothes in Japan also own to meet the Japanese standard.

Companies that meet the Japanese standard: GAP, Ancient Navy, Banana Republic, Liz Claiborne, Eddie Bauer, Cuddle Duds and Levi Strauss.

What is modal fabric allergies

There may be others but these were on the list from the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

If you suspect that you or a loved one may own this sensitivity please contact your dermatologist to be tested. Also visit the website of The American Contact Dermatitis Society for more detailed information.

Source: Y Walker,http://www.clothing-racks.tk/270165-The-Contact-Dermatitis-and-Clothing-Connection.html

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  1. Christian Morqueda