What is in peanuts that cause allergy
Individuals with food allergy own an overreactive immune systemtowards aparticularfood. Such a response happens due toan antibody calledIgE (Immunoglobulin E). Individuals suffering from food allergy often own a family history ofallergies.The most common food allergens are the proteins in cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish and tree nuts.
The symptoms on food allergy may not depend on the quantity of allergenic food consumed and may even happen with consumption of tiny amounts. It is also significant to note that numerous allergens may cause symptoms even after they own been cooked, and even after undergoing the digestive process.
On the other hand, some otherallergens, typically certain fruits and vegetables, may only cause allergies when consumed raw.
In some food groups, such as seafood andtree nuts, a phenomenon called cross-reactivity may be seen. This implies that if an individual has an allergy to onemember of a food family, they may also beallergic to other members of the same food group. Interestingly, cross-reactivitymay not be as commonly seen infoods from animal groups. For example, it has been found that individuals who may own allergiesto cow’s milk may still be capable toeat beef. Similarly, individuals with egg allergies may still be abletoeat chicken.
It has also been found thatamong shellfish, crustaceans (shrimp, crab and lobster) are most likely to cause an allergic reaction. Other mollusks such as clams, oysters and scallops are somewhat lesscommonly associated with allergies.
Symptoms of Food Allergies:
Symptoms of allergic reactions are commonly dermatological in nature and may causeskin itching, hives and swelling. Vomiting and diarrhea are common gastrointestinal symptoms. Symptoms of the respiratory system generally happen onlyin conjunction withskin and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Severe Allergic Reactions:
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that happens extremely quickly and needs immediate and urgent attention!The symptoms often includedifficulty in breathing, loss of consciousness and dizziness.
If you noticeany of these symptoms,especially after eating, call 911 rightaway. It is imperative to seek medical care immediately (call 911). Don’t wait to see if your symptoms go away or get better on their own. Without immediate treatment and effective and expert medical care, anaphylaxis can be lethal. It is essential to follow up with your allergist in such cases.
An allergist is the best qualified professional to diagnose food allergy. Your allergist will take a thorough medical history, followed by a physical examination. You may be asked about contents of the foods, the frequency, seasonality, severity and nature of your symptoms and the quantity of time between eating a food and any reaction.
Allergy skin tests may determine which foods, if any, trigger your allergic symptoms.
In skin testing, a little quantity of extract made from the food is placed on the back or arm. If a raised bump or little hive develops within 20 minutes, it indicates a possible allergy. If it does not develop, the test is negative. It is unusual for someone with a negative skin test to own an IgE-mediated food allergy.
In certain cases, such as in patients with severe eczema, an allergy skin test cannot be done. Your doctor may recommend a blood test. Untrue positive results may happen with both skin and blood testing.
Food challenges are often required to confirm the diagnosis. Food challenges are done by consuming the food in a medical setting to determine if that food causes a reaction.
Another question that is commonly asked is whether children outgrow their food allergies. It has been reported that most children may outgrow certain allergies such as those to soy, egg, cow’s milk, and wheat allergy, even if they own a history of a severe reaction. About 20% of children with peanut allergy will outgrow it. About 9% of children with tree nut allergy will outgrow it.
Your allergist can assist you study when your kid might outgrow a food allergy.
The best way to treat food allergy is to avoid the foods that trigger your allergy. Always check the ingredients when eating, especially when out of home. Carefully read labels that indicate food information.
Carefully read food labels. Always carry and know how to use injectable epinephrine and antihistamines to treat emergency reactions. Teach family members and other people shut to you how to use epinephrine! It is also significant to wear an ID bracelet that describes your allergy.
Food allergies can be confusing and isolating. For support, you may contact the Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network (FAAN) at (800) 929-4040.
(Information only; not intended to replace medical advice; adapted from AAAAI)
A UNC allergist addresses the risk of airborne peanut allergies.
Your carry-on bag is safely stowed overhead, your little one is buckled in and playing with her favorite toy, and you’re ready to dive into the thriller you brought to read on your flight when you smell it.
Peanuts. You start to panic. Her EpiPen is somewhere in the carry-on above, but the “fasten seat belt” sign is glaring at you. What should you do?
Take a deep breath and relax. Even if you are allergic to peanuts, touching, smelling or inhaling particles from peanuts cannot cause an allergic reaction—at least not the serious, life-threatening type that everyone with a peanut allergy fears. You are not in harm unless you eat them.
Smelling Peanuts Is Not the Same as Ingesting Them
While it is possible to breathe in a little bit of food protein, such as a peanut protein, that exposure is not enough to trigger a severe allergic reaction.
“The way I attempt to visualize it is it comes below to a threshold amount,” Dr.
Kim says. “In order to get enough of an exposure to trigger a large reaction, it really takes ingestion. It is extremely, extremely, extremely, extremely rare for someone to just inhale it and then actually own an all-out anaphylactic attack.”
And while this thought holds for both peanuts and tree nuts, it’s significant for people who are allergic to seafood to be aware: Reactions without ingestion do occasionally happen, Dr. Kim says. But the circumstances own to be just right; simply sitting next to someone eating shellfish, for example, won’t be a problem.
“There are reports where patients who are allergic to shellfish may be exposed to a steaming pot, perhaps at a clambake, and develop hives or asthma symptoms,” Dr.
Kim says. “This is not (from) being in the same room as someone eating shrimp, but from directly breathing in the steam as it’s being cooked or boiled.”
The FDA lists coconut as a tree nut. In fact, coconut is a seed of a drupaceous fruit. Most people allergic to tree nuts can safely eat coconut. Coconut allergy is reasonably rare. If you are allergic to tree nuts, talk to your allergist before adding coconut to or eliminating coconut from your diet.
What Will the Doctor Do?
If your doctor thinks you might own a nut or peanut allergy, he or she will probably send you to see a doctor who specializes in allergies.
The (allergy specialist) will enquire you about past reactions and how endless it takes between eating the nut or peanut and getting the symptoms, such as hives.
The allergist may also enquire whether anyone else in your family has allergies or other allergy conditions, such as eczema or asthma. Researchers aren’t certain why some people own food allergies and others don’t, but they sometimes run in families.
The allergist may also desire to do a skin test. This is a way of seeing how your body reacts to a extremely little quantity of the nut that is giving you trouble.
The allergist will use a liquid extract of the nut that seems to be causing you symptoms.
During skin testing, a little scratch on your skin is made (it will be a quick pinch, but there are no needles!). That’s how just a little of the liquid nut gets into your skin. If you get a reddish, itchy, raised spot, it shows that you may be allergic to that food or substance.
Skin tests are the best test for food allergies, but if more information is needed, the doctor may also order a blood test. At the lab, the blood will be mixed with some of the food or substance you may be allergic to and checked for antibodies.
It’s significant to remember that even though the doctor tests for food allergies by carefully exposing you to a extremely little quantity of the food, you should not attempt this at home! The only put for an allergy test is at the allergist’s office, where they are specially trained and could give you medicine correct away if you had a reaction.
What It Means to Be Allergic to Peanuts
When you’re allergic to peanuts, you’re actually allergic to the proteins found in peanuts.
Antibodies in your immune system float around waiting to jump into action if they come into contact with these proteins.
This occurs when you eat a peanut—even a miniscule amount.
“When you own someone who’s allergic and ingests peanuts, the antibodies in the person’s immune system discover and grab onto this peanut and cause your body to release certain chemicals, the most significant of which is histamine,” says Edwin Kim, MD, director of the UNC Food Allergy Initiative.
Histamine can cause symptoms ranging from itching and hives to a severe, life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis must be treated with epinephrine, which comes in an injectable pen, often called an EpiPen, followed by an emergency medical evaluation.
Nutrition for a Nut-Free Diet
Tree nuts are a excellent source of protein, vitamins and minerals in a child’s diet. However, if your kid needs to avoid nuts of any type, they should not be at nutritional risk since there are numerous other sources of protein to eat instead.
WHEN AVOIDING TREE NUTS
|SUGGESTED ALTERNATE SOURCES
(if not allergic)
|Protein, Vitamins, Minerals||Increase other protein foods such as meat, legumes, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy
(if safe for your child);
fruit, vegetables, and enriched grains
What Happens With a Tree Nut or Peanut Allergy?
Your immune system normally fights infections.
But when someone has a nut allergy, it overreacts to proteins in the nut. If the person eats something that contains the nut, the body thinks these proteins are harmful invaders and responds by working extremely hard to fight off the invader. This causes an allergic reaction.
Have an Emergency Plan
If you own a nut or peanut allergy, you and a parent should create a plan for how to handle a reaction, just in case. That way your teachers, the school nurse, your basketball coach, your friends — everyone will know what a reaction looks love and how to respond.
To immediately treat anaphylaxis, doctors recommend that people with a nut or peanut allergy hold a shot of epinephrine (say: eh-puh-NEH-frin) with them.
This helpful of epinephrine injection comes in an easy-to-carry container. You and your parent can work out whether you carry this or someone at school keeps it on hand for you. You’ll also need to identify a person who will give you the shot.
You might desire to own antihistamine medicine on hand too for mild reactions. If anaphylaxis is happening, this medicine is never a substitute for epinephrine. After getting an epinephrine shot, you need to go to the hospital or other medical facility, where they will hold an eye on you for at least 4 hours and make certain the reaction is under control and does not come back.
How to Read a Label for Tree Nuts
Always read the entire ingredient label to glance for the names of the tree nut(s) you need to avoid.
Tree nut ingredients may be within the list of the ingredients. Or tree nuts could be listed in a “Contains” statement beneath the list of ingredients.
Examples are «Contains Walnut» or «Contains Almond». This is required by the federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). Study more about the U.S. food allergen labeling law.
FALCPA requires that every packaged foods regulated by the FDA must list the common names of tree nuts clearly on the ingredient label if it contains tree nuts. Advisory statements such as “may contain hazelnuts” or “made in a facility with tree nuts” are voluntary.
Advisory statements are not required by any federal labeling law.
Discuss with your doctor if you may eat products with these labels or if you should avoid them.
Did you know that marzipan, mortadella and mandelonas every contain tree nuts? The FDA food allergen label law requires foods to state if they contain a top 8 allergen such as tree nuts. But, there are numerous foods and products that are not covered by the law, so it is still significant to know how to read a label for tree nut ingredients. Products exempt from plain English labeling rules: (1) Foods that are not regulated by the FDA. (2) Cosmetics and personal care items. (3) Prescription and over-the-counter medications.
(4) Toys, crafts and pet food.
CONTAIN TREE NUTS
The following ingredients found on a label indicate the presence of tree nuts. Every labels should be read carefully before consuming a product, even if it has been used safely in the past.
COMMON TREE NUT NAMES (FDA LIST)
COMPLETE LIST OF TREE NUT NAMES (BOTANICAL NAMES AND DERIVATIVES)
Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) [botanical name, Cashew]
Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) [botanical name, Brazil nut]
Butyrospermum Parkii [botanical name, Shea nut]
Canarium ovatum Engl.
in A. DC. (Burseraceae) [botanical name, Pili nut]
Carya illinoensis (Juglandaceae) [botanical name, Pecan]
Carya spp. (Juglandaceae) [botanical name, Hickory nut]
Castanea pumila (Fagaceae) [botanical name, Chinquapin]
Castanea spp. (Fagaceae) [botanical name, Chestnut (Chinese, American, European, Seguin)]
Chestnut (Chinese, American, European, Seguin)
Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae (alt. Palmae)) [botanical name, Coconut]
Corylus spp. (Betulaceae) [botanical name, Filbert/hazelnut]
Fagus spp. (Fagaceae) [botanical name, beech nut]
Ginkgo biloba L.
(Ginkgoaceae) [botanical name, Ginko nut]
Juglans cinerea (Juglandaceae) [botanical name, Butternut]
Juglans spp. (Juglandaceae) [botanical name, Walnut, Butternut, Heartnut]
Karite (shea nut)
Litchi chinensis Sonn. Sapindaceae [botanical name, Lichee nut]
Macadamia spp. (Proteaceae) [botanical name, Macadamia nut/Bush nut]
Natural nut extract (for example, almond extract)
Nut butters (e.g., Almond butter, Hazelnut butter, Brazil nut butter, Macadamia nut butter, Pistachio nut butter, Shea nut butter, Karike butter, as well as other nut butters)
Nut oil (e.g., Walnut oil as well as other nut oils)
Pine nut (Indian, piñon, pinyon, pigndi, pigñolia, pignon nuts)
Piñon or Piñon nut
(Pineaceae) [botanical name, Pine nut/piñon nut]
Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) [botanical name, Pistachio]
Prunus dulcis (Rosaceae) [bontanical name, almond]
Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. (Sapotaceae) [botanical name, Shea nut]
Walnut (English, Persian, Black, Japanese, California)
TREE NUTS ARE SOMETIMES FOUND IN
However, if the product is an FDA regulated food, the common tree nut name must appear on the label.
Cross Reactivity: Do You Need to Avoid Other Foods?
Cross-reactivity occurs when the proteins in one food are similar to the proteins in another.
When that happens, the body’s immune system sees them as the same.
Tree nuts are in a diverse plant family than peanuts.
Peanuts are legumes and are not related to tree nuts (almonds, walnuts, cashews, etc.). However, about 35% of peanut-allergic toddlers in the U.S. own or will develop a tree nut allergy. Doctors often recommend that young children avoid tree nuts if they are allergic to peanuts. This is because it is fairly common to be «co-allergic» to tree nuts if a kid is allergic to peanuts.
There is a high degree of cross-reactivity between cashew and pistachio and between walnut and pecan. Most people who are allergic to one tree nut are not allergic to every tree nuts. But some doctors will advise their patients to avoid every tree nuts if allergic to one or more tree nuts.
Check with your doctor to discover out if you need to avoid every tree nuts.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Nut Allergy?
When someone with a peanut or tree nut allergy has something with nuts in it, the body releases chemicals love histamine (pronounced: HISS-tuh-meen).
This can cause symptoms such as:
- trouble breathing
- throat tightness
- a drop in blood pressure
- itchy, watery, or swollen eyes
- dizziness or fainting
- anxiety or a feeling something bad is happening
Reactions to foods, love peanuts and tree nuts, can be diverse.
It every depends on the person — and sometimes the same person can react differently at diverse times.
In the most serious cases, a nut or peanut allergy can cause anaphylaxis (say: an-uh-fuh-LAK-sis). Anaphylaxis is a sudden, life-threatening allergic reaction. A person’s blood pressure can drop, breathing tubes can narrow, and the tongue can swell.
People at risk for this helpful of a reaction own to be extremely careful and need a plan for handling emergencies, when they might need to use special medicine to stop these symptoms from getting worse.
What Else Should I Know?
If you discover out you own a nut or peanut allergy, don’t be bashful about it.
It’s significant to tell your friends, family, coaches, and teachers at school. The more people who know, the better off you are because they can assist you stay away from the nut that causes you problems.
Telling the server in a restaurant is also really significant because he or she can steer you away from dishes that contain nuts. Likewise, a coach or teacher would be capable to select snacks for the group that don’t contain nuts.
It’s grand to own people love your parents, who can assist you avoid nuts, but you’ll also desire to start learning how to avoid them on your own.
Tree Nut Allergy
Tree nut allergy is the second most common allergy in infants and young children.
Approximately 0.4- 0.5% of American children own a tree nut allergy. Tree nuts are a common allergen reported to cause fatal and near-fatal allergic reactions.
Tree nut allergy is generally life-long once acquired. Approximately 9% of children allergic to tree nuts may outgrow their allergy.
Children with a tree nut allergy must avoid that tree nut and every products containing that type of tree nut. Children with a tree nut allergy also must avoid anything containing traces of ingredients containing that tree nut. There is a potential of tree nut products having cross-contact other tree nuts and with peanuts.
For this reason, your child’s doctor may advise you to avoid every tree nuts and peanuts.
When Exposure to Peanuts Can Cause a Physical Reaction
While just smelling peanuts won’t cause a severe reaction, if you’re allergic to peanuts, the smell can trigger a response in your body because it senses danger.
“Peanuts own a extremely potent smell. The smell may be enough to trigger some of the anxiety, concerns and fear that rightfully come because you anticipate a reaction,” Dr.
Kim says. “It’s a survival instinct. Your body knows there is something around that it should not be eating.”
Dr. Kim says that if you are allergic to peanuts, you can experience nausea or just feel a little off if you smell them. “And if the person who sat in an airplane seat before you happened to eat peanuts and was not extremely clean, you could potentially touch it in a chair and own a little bit of a rash or irritation” on the skin, he says.
So whether it’s on a plane or at the lunchroom table, wipe below the area if you smell peanuts or are concerned about residue. Also, if you own a kid who is allergic to peanuts, make certain you teach him or her early not to share food with friends.
“If they’re too young to know not to share foods, then that might be the one time where an actual separated table (for children with peanut allergies) could make sense,” Dr.
Kim says. “But as they get older and you feel love they own learned this and can control their instincts, there’s no reason they can’t sit alongside their friends.”
Talk to your or your child’s doctor if you’re concerned about food allergies. If you need a doctor, discover one near you.
Edwin Kim, MD, MS, is an allergist at the UNC Allergy and Immunology Clinic in Chapel Hill and an assistant professor of allergy and immunology at the UNC School of Medicine.
He is also the director of the UNC Food Allergy Initiative.
en españolAlergia a los frutos secos y a los cacahuetes
Oh, nuts! They certain can cause you trouble if you’re allergic to them — and a growing number of kids are these days.
So what helpful of nuts are we talking about? Peanuts, for one, though they aren’t truly a nut. They’re a legume (say: LEH-gyoom), love peas and lentils. A person also could be allergic to nuts that grow on trees, such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, and pistachios.
When you ponder of allergies, you might picture lots of sneezing and runny noses.
But unlike an allergy to spring flowers, a nut or peanut allergy can cause difficulty breathing and other extremely serious health problems. That’s why it’s very important for someone with a nut or peanut allergy to avoid eating nuts and peanuts, which can be tough because they’re in lots of foods.
How Is a Tree Nut or Peanut Allergy Treated?
There is no special medicine for nut or peanut allergies and numerous people don’t outgrow them. The best treatment is to avoid the nut. That means not eating that nut, and also avoiding the nut when it’s mixed in foods. (Sometimes these foods don’t even taste nutty! Would you believe chili sometimes contains nuts to assist make it thicker?)
Staying safe means reading food labels and paying attention to what they tell about how the food was produced.
Some foods don’t contain nuts, but are made in factories that make other items that do contain nuts. The problem is the equipment can be used for both foods, causing "cross-contamination." That’s the same thing that happens in your own home if someone spreads peanut butter on a sandwich and dips that same knife into the jar of jelly.
After checking the ingredients list, glance on the label for phrases love these:
- "may contain tree nuts"
- "produced on shared equipment with tree nuts or peanuts"
People who are allergic to nuts also should avoid foods with these statements on the label.
Some of the highest-risk foods for people with peanut or tree nut allergy include:
- cookies and baked goods
- Asian and African foods
- ice cream
- sauces (nuts may be used to thicken dishes)
Talk to your allergist about how to stay safe in the school cafeteria. Also enquire about how you should handle other peanut encounters, love at restaurants or stadiums where people are opening peanut shells. People with nut allergies generally won’t own a reaction if they breathe in little particles.
That’s because the food generally has to be eaten to cause a reaction.
Tree Nut Substitutions
It is extremely simple to replace nuts in a recipe. There are numerous seeds and seed products available including sunflower butter and pumpkin seed butter. Roasted chickpeas can replace nut snacks. Pretzels can substitute for pecans in pecan pie.
Learn more about NUT SUBSTITUTES.
Over 1100 nut-free recipes are available in KFA’s Safe Eats™ Recipes. Search for Nut-Free Recipes
Medical review February 2015.
The Fairfield Country Day School in Connecticut still serves peanut butter but has eliminated peanuts from its dessert menu, banning them from brownies, cookies and ice-cream sundaes.
''Who would own thought an old-fashioned favorite love peanut butter and jelly could be considered so dangerous?'' said Robert Vitalo, the Fairfield headmaster.
Among public schools, Mount Kisco Elementary School in Westchester County and the Cos Cob Elementary School in Greenwich, Conn., own set aside a peanut-free table that is scrubbed below before and after meals. Schools in Buffalo, North Andover, Mass., Orange County, Calif., and Toronto own taken similar measures.
At the opposite finish of the spectrum, the New York City public school system, the country's largest with more than one million children, has remained immune to the peanut phenomenon, largely because no one has complained.
In city schools, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are still offered as a cold-lunch option in every school almost every day, said a spokesman, J. D. LaRock. When peanut butter is not the choice of the day, it is available on request, he said. ''There's peanut butter aplenty in our system,'' Mr. LaRock said. Peanuts are not served, but that is because they are a choking hazard, he added.
While peanut butter has been slow to become an issue in the New York public schools, the city's private schools own fallen in line love so numerous dominoes. Mark E. Brossman, a lawyer who represents numerous New York City private schools, said schools are concerned that peanut allergies might qualify as a disability that must be accommodated under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Neither Mr. Brossman nor the Food Allergy Network knew of any litigation on peanut allergy that has resulted in a court decision.
But a recent directive by the Federal Department of Transportation construed peanut allergies as a disability and ordered airlines to set up peanut-free zones. That decision may set a precedent for schools, advocates say.
Beyond bans, schools are trying to decide whether to provide individualized supplies — tell, blocks and sets of wooden rods for solving math problems — to children with severe allergies so they will not be contaminated by the peanut-smeared hands of classmates.
Concerned that a kid who has just eaten peanut butter might hold hands with an allergic kid, schools now urge children to become regular hand-washers.