What is good for swollen eyes from allergies

Many people who struggle with allergies to pollen, dust, or pets experience dry, burning, stinging, or watering eyes as a symptom. Perhaps the wind blew a piece of dust or grit into your eye, leading to irritation and a burning sensation that lasts a little while after the irritant has been removed. If you wear makeup, particles from your mascara, eyeliner, or eye shadow may get in your eye. Typically, these irritants can be blinked away or washed out with over-the-counter eye drops.

Other kinds of irritants can cause more serious problems, including chemical burns.

A mild version of this occurs when you get sunscreen in your eyes. The product contains chemicals that lead to a superficial chemical burn that lasts a couple of days, then eventually goes away.

Industrial toxins, household cleaners, paint, gasoline, and other substances are extremely dangerous, volatile, and toxic. Being around them may sting your eyes with a mild chemical burn, and accidentally getting them in your eyes may require emergency medical attention.

Larger irritants love sand can lead to corneal abrasions, or scrapes on the cornea. Numerous of these are minor and heal quickly, but sometimes, they cause inflammation of the eye, called iritis. Infection in the cornea can become a corneal ulcer, which may lead to blindness if left untreated.

Another serious problem that can lead to burning eyes and requires medical treatment is allergic conjunctivitis, or inflammation of the eye tissue caused by allergies.

Love other kinds of allergic reactions, the immune system reacts to the presence of an allergen by producing antibodies. These may cause the eyes to water, itch, hurt, become inflamed, or swollen.

A doctor can diagnose and treat any allergies you own, which are systemic and not just an eye condition. Taking antihistamines, either over-the-counter or prescription medications, can manage allergies. If you take an allergen test and know what triggers your allergic reactions, avoiding specific allergens can also help.

The sun can be a serious irritant to the eyes, and too much UV exposure can cause a sunburn on the eye, love it does on the skin.

This is called ultraviolet keratitis or photokeratitis, and it is a painful condition in which exposure to UV light and too much sun burns the cornea, which is made up of epithelial cells loosely similar to skin.

Snow blindness is a type of photokeratitis that occurs during skiing, snowshoeing, or another outdoor activity in which the sun bounces off bright white snow and into your eye. Burning or itching eyes is one symptom of this helpful of burn.


Favorite Resources for Finding a Specialist

American Rhinologic Society

Through research, education, and advocacy, the American Rhinologic Society is devoted to serving patients with nose, sinus, and skull base disorders.

Their website’s thorough coverage of sinus-related issues includes rarer conditions, such as fungal sinusitis, which are often excluded from other informational sites. It also provides a valuable search tool to discover a doctor, as well as links to other medical societies and resources that are useful for patients.

Cleveland Clinic

Their website contains an exhaustive guide on sinusitis and an easy-to-use «Find a Doctor» search tool.

ENThealth

ENThealth provides useful information on how the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) are all connected, along with information about sinusitis and other related illnesses and symptoms, such as rhinitis, deviated septum, and postnasal drip.

As part of the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery, this website is equipped with the ability to assist you discover an ENT specialist in your area.

Patient Management

FOLLOW-UP AND MONITORING

Regardless of the etiologies of eyelid dermatitis, if the patient has severe enough disease to warrant oral steroids or mid-potency topical steroids, the patient should be seen back in clinic in 2 to 4 weeks.

In cases of mild-to-moderate disease in which low-potency topical steroids are being used, then follow-up visits are still encouraged but can be postponed to every 2 to 3 months.

Signs of steroid overuse (atrophy, telangiectasias, striae), cataracts (corneal opacities), symptoms of glaucoma and infections should be monitored at every visit.

Patients with severe atopic eyelid dermatitis should be followed regularly by ophthalmology. The side effects of topical corticosteroids increase with the longer duration and higher potency steroids. TCIs should be used if disease can not be cleared with a 7 to 10 days course of topical corticosteroids.

Patients with ocular rosacea should be followed every 3 months if they are on an oral medicaton for their disease. They should also be advised to see an ophthalmologist for periodic evaluation. Women of child-bearing age on tetracyclines should be appropriately counseled to stop the medication if they are planning on becoming pregnant, as it can lead to dental anomalies in a fetus.

In patients taking minocycline, blue-gray pigmentary changes are possible 12 to 24 months into treatment, hence an alternative medication plan is needed after patient has taken minocycline for more than 1 year.

MAINTENANCE THERAPY

For long- term maintenance therapy of severe disease, it is significant to minimize the long-term use of higher potency topical steroids. For severe disease, patients should include daily or twice daily use of TCIs.

Sometimes use of topical steroids is also needed for maintenance therapy, but should be limited to twice a week use in such cases. Using low-potency topical steroids on the weekends and moisturizers or TCIs during the relax of the week can be a reasonable maintenance plan.

For moderate disease twice a week use of low-potency topical steroids with barrier replacement therapy (moisturization) on the other days is safe and efficatious. For mild disease, barrier replacement therapy (moisturization with plain % petrolatum) is the mainstay. For diseases love atopic dermatitis, barrier replacement therapy is crucial to assist patients stay in remission longer.

Expected results of diagnostic studies

Diagnostic workup should include anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screen as well as myositis-specific antibodies, muscle enzyme levels (creatine phosphokinase, aldolase), electromyography, and muscle biopsy (triceps most sensitive) or MRI.

The extent of workup for malignancy is debated but can be guided by family history, patient symptoms, general physical examination (including rectal, pelvic and breast), and every age-appropriate cancer screening. Skin biopsy can be helpful in demonstrating subtle vacuolar interface dermatitis on histology.

What to be alert for in the history

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disorder mostly affecting fair skin individuals. Patients are generally adult females in a to year-old age group. Typical facial rosacea presents with facial flushing (triggered by stress, spicy food, heat, or alcohol), redness, and acne-like lesions.

Symptoms are nonspecific and encompass stinging, burning and itching of the areas involved. Numerous report skin sensitivity to a variety of topical products and sun.

Topical and intranasal steroids are a common trigger of a persistent rosacea flare. Ocular rosacea can be present in the absence of the characteristic rosacea features. Variety of ocular and eyelid symptoms are reported: dry eyes, sensation of grittiness or foreign body, light-sensitivity and swelling, itching or scaling of the eyelids.

What to be alert for in the history

Patients with eyelid dermatitis due to seborrhea report scaling as their main concern; where as level of pruritus is generally variable.

In addition to eyelid involvement, most complain of redness and scaling in several other sebaceous-rich areas of skin, such as the scalp, eyebrows, retroauricular skin, nasolabial creases, central chest, axilla, groin, and inframammary folds. Symptoms are often chronic with periods of exacerbation.

Pathophysiology of various causes of eyelid dermatitis

CONTACT DERMATITIS OF THE EYELIDS

The unique anatomy of the eyelid makes it a susceptible site for inflammation. With thickness about a fourth that of other facial skin (about mm) there is facile penetration of allergens or irritants.

Auto-inoculation from distant sites or even shut personal contacts is possible, and airborne exposures must be considered.

In allergic contact dermatitis the inflammation is mediated by a delayed (type IV) hypersensitivity reaction that occurs after sensitization. Commonly prescribed antihistamines used for type I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity are useful only for their soporific effects in type IV reactions.

Irritant dermatitis is mediated by direct toxic effect of a chemical whose physical properties such as hydrophobicity influence ability to penetrate the stratum corneum and cause cellular damage. Pre-existing disruption of the skins barrier, as is common in disorders love atopic dermatitis, may enhance the penetration of these molecules.

Thus individual skin condition alters the threshold at which a chemical becomes an irritant and efforts to maintain skin hydration and barrier become important.

ATOPIC DERMATITIS OF EYELIDS

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and genetically predisposed skin condition with initial symptoms developing in infancy or childhood and varying clinical patterns at diverse stages of life. The eyelids are a commonly involved site in AD owing to the thin nature of the area being easily traumatized by scratching. The associated condition icthyosis vulgaris is caused by faulty or absent fillagrin, a protein critical in maintaining a normal skin barrier. The loss of fillagrin results in a retention hyperkeratosis characterized by hyperlinear palms, keratosis pilaris (follicular rough bumps on the upper arms and thighs), and xerotic fine scales on the extensor surfaces.

It is thought that the disrupted skin barrier in AD leads to more facile penetration and presentation of allergens accounting for the increased frequency of allergies seen.

These patients are prone to secondary bacterial, fungal, and viral infections, own higher rates of staphylococcal colonization, often requiring antibiotic or antiviral therapy. This predispostion to infection is partially due to the impaired barrier function of the skin, but is also due to altered innate immunity, seen by decrease of endogenous antimicrobial peptides in atopic skin.

SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS OF THE EYELIDS

The pathogenesis of seborrhea is debated but largely thought to be secondary to epidermal colonization by the lipophyilic and nonpathogenic yeasts of the Malassezia and Pityrosporum species.

An altered immune response is thought to be involved as evidenced by the more severe presentations found in the HIV/AIDS population. Severe seborrheic dermatitis is also often present in patients with Parkinsons disease (Figure 14).

OCULAR ROSACEA

Pathophysiology of rosacea is poorly understood. Multiple etiologies own been suggested, including environmental triggers, altered antimicrobial peptides melieu, presence of skin bacteria and possibly Demodex folliculorum connection. Vascular proliferation and dermal degeneration contribute to development of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. For ocular rosacea, specifically meibomian gland dysfunction resulting in altered tear film and irritation, was proposed as a potential etiology.

What to be alert for in the history

A careful history of exposures is critical to the diagnosis of contact dermatitis.

These historical reviews can be fairly extensive and occasionally require a referral to a contact dermatitis specialist within dermatology for a comprehensive workup. A flare in previously well controlled atopic or seborrheic dermatitis may represent a new allergic contact dermatitis and should immediate re-evaluation of exposures. It is high yield to enquire the patient about occupation, hobbies, home and yard care responsibilities, and of course, cosmetics, skin care products, and prescription medications.

Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) often presents with a history of burning or stinging skin, generally within minutes of application of offending product.

Pruritus is more common with an allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), and the rash onset is generally reported 1 to 2 days after exposure to an allergen. Exposures (and their associated allergens) that can cause eyelid dermatitis:

Eyelash curlers (nickel, rubber additives; Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4), chemicals contained in facial tissues (preservatives), make-up applicators (rubber additives), nail polish (tosylamide formaldehyde resin; Figure 5), artificial nails (acrylates; Figure 6), household cleaners (irritant reaction), ophthalmic solutions (preservatives, antibiotics, topical beta-blockers; Figure 7), shampoos (cocomidopropyl betaine; Figure 8, Figure 9), hair dye (paraphenylenediamine) and poison ivy/oak (urushiol).

Facial or hand moisturizers (preservatives, formaldehyde releasers, sunscreen chemicals, lanolin)

Various cosmetics including eyeliners, mascara, eyeshadow, lipstick (fragrances, formaldehyde releasers, shellac, sunscreen chemicals).

Mascara causes an irritant reaction more often than allergic.

Although nickel is not a common ingredient in cosmetic products, it has been hypothesized to contaminate products during manufacturing.

Jewelry, keys, coins (nickel and gold) can transfer to skin from the handling of those metal objects by hands.

Topical antibiotics (neomycin and bacitracin) are common over-the-counter self-remedies, which patients apply to inflamed skin in an attempt to treat it. Both are frequent causes of allergic contact dermatitis.

Airborne allergens (urushiol, fragrances, lichens, other various botanicals)

Characteristic findings on physical examination

Clinically, upper and lower eyelids can be erythematous, scaly and edematous, generally involving eyelash margin with greasy scaling.

Mild to severe conjunctival injection can be present. Chronic inflammation can lead to lid thickening.

The most helpful findings are clinical signs of facial rosacea. Diffuse erythema and prominent telangiectasias on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin. Inflammatory papules and little pustules without comedones are seen in acneiform rosacea in the same distribution. Sebaceous hyperplasia and tissue hypertrophy can be seen over the central forehead, nose (rhinophyma) or chin predominantly in male patients.

If none of the cutaneous findings of rosacea are present, referring patient to an ophthalmologist is recommended to confirm diagnosis. Immediate diagnosis of ocular rosacea is significant, as undiagnosed and untreated it carries the risk of corneal scarring.

Characteristic findings on physical examination

Clinically, upper and lower eyelids protest poorly circumscribed erythematous thin plaques with greasy yellow or fine white scale.

When eyelash margin alone is affected and no other cutaneous findings are identified, seborrheic dermatitis of the eyelids is the most likely diagnosis (Figure 13). Skin examination of sebaceous-rich areas of the skin and their involvement by seborrheic dermatitis also helps to support the diagnosis.

Table 1.
First Line treatment Second Line treatment
Severity of condition Mild Moderate-Severe Mild Moderate-Severe
Allergic/ irritant contact dermatitis Avoid allergen or irritant(T): low potency topical steroid twice a day up to 10 dayseg, hydrocortisone % ointment Avoid allergen or irritant(T): mid-potency steroid (eg, triamcinolone % ointment) twice a day up to 5 days, followed by topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs; tacrolimus % ointment or pimecrolimus 1% cream) twice a day until resolution of symptoms Avoid allergen or irritant(T): TCIs (tacrolimus % ointment or pimecrolimus 1% cream) twice a day until resolution of symptoms Avoid allergen or irritant(S): short course of corticosteroid (eg, prednisone 40 to 60mg orally daily for 1 to 3 weeks)
Atopic dermatitis (T): low-potency topical steroid twice a day up to 10 days (T): mid-potency steroid twice a day up to 5 days, followed by TCIs (tacrolimus % ointment or pimecrolimus 1% cream) twice a day until resolution of symptoms(S): sedating antihistamines (eg,: hydroxyzine 25 to 50mg every evening to treat pruritus (T): over-the-counter barrier creams or ointments as needed (eg, petrolatum) (T): TCIs (tacrolimus % ointment or pimecrolimus 1% cream) twice a day until resolution of symptoms
Seborrheic dermatitis (T): ketoconazole 2% cream twice a day until resolutionluke warm compresseswashing eyelashes with baby shampoo to work out the scales (T): low potency steroid twice a day up to 10 days (T): ketoconazole 1% to 2%, selenium sulfide %, or over-the-counter zinc pyrithione, or salicylic acid-containing shampoo diluted ; wash the areas daily until resolution (T): TCIs (tacrolimus % ointment or pimecrolimus 1% cream) twice a day until resolution of symptoms
Rosacea-induced eyelid dermatitis luke warm compresses to improve blepharitisartificial tears to assist with ocular irritation (S): tetracycline class antibiotics.

eg, minocycline mg orally twice a day or doxycycline mg orally twice a day for 6 weeks, then taper or stop

(T):metronidazole % to 1% cream, gel, lotion or sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion , cleanser (T): extremely short course of low- potency steroids up to 5 to 7 dayseg, hydrocortisone % cream or desonide % lotion

Favorite Resources for Finding a Specialist

American Rhinologic Society

Through research, education, and advocacy, the American Rhinologic Society is devoted to serving patients with nose, sinus, and skull base disorders.

Their website’s thorough coverage of sinus-related issues includes rarer conditions, such as fungal sinusitis, which are often excluded from other informational sites. It also provides a valuable search tool to discover a doctor, as well as links to other medical societies and resources that are useful for patients.

Cleveland Clinic

Their website contains an exhaustive guide on sinusitis and an easy-to-use «Find a Doctor» search tool.

ENThealth

ENThealth provides useful information on how the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) are all connected, along with information about sinusitis and other related illnesses and symptoms, such as rhinitis, deviated septum, and postnasal drip.

As part of the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery, this website is equipped with the ability to assist you discover an ENT specialist in your area.

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis?

Eyelid dermatitis is an umbrella term describing a group of inflammatory skin disorders that localize to the eyelids and resemble eczema. There are numerous causes of eyelid dermatitis, hence it is a vexing problem for patients and can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Knowledge of the common causes and their key features can focus the history and physical examination and alert the clinician to more serious conditions.

Time course, patient age, symptoms, presence or absence of scale or edema, distribution (isolated lesion vs multiple, discreet vs diffuse, bilateral vs unilateral, lid margin vs crease) assist differentiate the diverse types of eyelid dermatitis.

This chapter reviews the common periorbital dermatoses with emphasis on their distinguishing features.

Most common causes of eyelid dermatitis are

Contact dermatitis (allergic and irritant), 50% to 76% of cases

Atopic dermatitis, 12% to 17%

Seborrheic dermatitis 8% to 16%

Rosacea, less than 5%

There are other conditions of the eyelids that mimic eyelid dermatitis and are not to be missed, such as dermatomyositis. The broader differential diagnosis includes other connective tissue diseases (discoid lupus erythematosus [Figure 1], Sjögrens, etc), psoriasis, contact urticaria, infections (viral, bacterial or fungal), and drug reactions.

Neoplasms benign or malignant can also mimic dermatitis and can localize to an eyelid. Discussion of those conditions is beyond the scope of this chapter.

CONTACT DERMATITIS OF THE EYELIDS

Contact dermatitis is comprised of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD); these can be hard to differentiate and own overlapping characteristics.

Expected results of diagnostic studies

Again, atopic dermatitis (AD) of eyelids is a clinical diagnosis, rarely requiring any diagnostic studies. As discussed with allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, swab cultures are sometimes necessary to assess for presence of a bacterial and/or viral infection that can complicate diagnosis.

Skin biopsy shows similar changes to contact and seborrheic dermatitis with acute or subacute spongiotic dermatitis early on, and psoriasiform spongiotic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus at later chronic stages.

Laboratory testing of entire serum IgE can be elevated (but not diagnostic), and skin prick tests for type I sensitizations are frequently positive (food allergies, pollens, dust mites), but again are not diagnostic of AD.

SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS OF THE EYELIDS

Unusual Clinical Scenarios to Consider in Patient Management

One specific conundrum that patients with eyelid dermatitis face is the development of an allergic contact dermatitis to the product that they are using to treat their condition.

As alluded to earlier, a flare in previosly well controlled eyelid dermatitis or eyelid dermatitis that has suddenly became resistant to therapy should immediate evaluation for every topical contact exposures.

What is excellent for swollen eyes from allergies

Examples include ACD to topical steroids, topical antibiotics, preservatives, or inactive ingredients within medications. Use of petrolatum/ointment base preparations can assist minimize such events, as even fragrances make their way into some topical steroid preparations. Repeat patch testing should be considered.

Treatment Options

Table 1. Treatment options for eyelid dermatitis (T topical, S systemic)

Expected results of diagnostic studies

Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis. Rarely, tinea faciei can present with similar findings (Figure 14), and KOH examination can be helpful to law out this fungal infection.

If seborheic dermatitis, including seborrhea of the eyelids, is extremely severe or acute in onset, an HIV test should be ordered. The histology of seborrheic dermatitis depends on the age of the lesion biopsied, showing acute, subacute, or chronic/psoriasiform spongiotic dermatitis.

OCULAR ROSACEA

Characteristic findings on physical examination

Atopic dermatitis is the most common cause of chronic eyelid dermatitis, which mimics changes seen in other chronic eczemas, with hyperpigmentation, lichenification, and diffuse scaling. Excessive chronic rubbing of the eyelids can cause eyelash and eyebrow hair loss.

Dennie Morgan infraorbital folds, periorbital darkening (the “allergic shiner”), keratoconus, and anterior subcapsular cataracts are other clinical findings seen in chronic atopic eyelid dermatitis.

Full skin examination is significant and helpful in identifying other typical areas of involvement by atopic dermatitis (Figure 11, Figure 12).

Characteristic findings on physical examination

Heliotrope rash is a violaceous or lilac discoloration of the periorbital eyelid skin, sometimes accompanied by significant edema or scaling (Figure 14). Other cutaneous signs of DM are erythematous to violaceous papules and plaques over the metacarpalphalangeal joints, also known as Gottrons papules; the “V” sign of the anterior neck and the “shawl sign” described as macular erythema and poikiloderma (telangiectasia, atrophy, hypo- and hyperpigmentation).

What to be alert for in the history

Patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis caused by atopic dermatitis (AD) often own a history of chronic eyelid itching, redness and scaling; plus they often own eczema diagnosis since early childhood.

Pruritus, sometimes unbearable, is often their main concern, as they become trapped in endless itch-scratch-itch cycles. Personal or family history of atopy (AD, or allergic rhinitis/hayfever or asthma) is typically present. AD is diagnosed on the basis of major criteria (family history of eczema, severe pruritus, facial and extensor distribution in infants, flexural distribution in adults) and numerous minor criteria. As nipple dermatitis is fairly specific for AD, asking about that symptom can confirm diagnosis.

Expected results of diagnostic studies

Ocular rosacea is also a clinical diagnosis, and biopsy is rarely needed.

DERMATOMYOSITIS, AS PERTAINS TO EYELID DERMATITIS

Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic skin findings, which often precede development of proximal muscle weakness by weeks to months.

What is excellent for swollen eyes from allergies

This is a rare condition that can overlap with other autoimmune rheumatic diseases. DM carries a risk of systemic complications related to muscle weakness (respiratory failure, dysphagia, bowel dysmotility) and an increased relative risk of malignancy.

What to be alert for in the history

Thirty to sixty percent of patients with DM own periorbital skin findings of DM, the heliotrope rash (Figure 15). Although it is asymptomatic, signs of periorbital darkening, fine scaling and especially eyelid swelling can be the initial concerns that bring a patient into a physicians office. Patients with those findings should be asked about new photosensitivity, fatigue, muscle weakness, examples being difficulty with rising from a chair or brushing hair.

Characteristic findings on physical examination

As eyelid dermatitis can be an episodic occurrence, patients can present with relatively normal eyelid examination.

In general, eyelid dermatitis appears as erythematous, often scaly, sometimes crusty and oozing plaques on either upper or lower eyelids or both, unilateral or bilateral. Edema is often present, but not without erythema and scaling.

The palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva are generally spared, but can appear slightly erythematous as a reaction to the surrounding inflammation. Upper lid involvement is more associated with airborne contact allergens, whereas lower lid dermatitis is more commonly associated with contact dermatitis induced by eye drops. In a photodistributed dermatitis again lower eyelids will be involved, while upper eyelids, especially creases, will be spared.

Allergic or irritant dermatitis more often presents as acute eyelid dermatitis with intense pruritus, weeping, brightly erythematous and edematous papules and plaques.

Although vesicles are also a hallmark of acute contact dermatitis, they are less common periorbitally. Presence of vesicles should alert the clinician to consider a herpetic viral infection (herpes simplex or zoster; Figure 10). Yellow honey-color crusting can also indicate bacterial impetiginization.

Contact dermatitis is often bilateral. Unilateral involvement suggests an infectious cause such as herpes zoster or erysipelas. Hordeolum and chalazion generally localize to one eye as well.

If eyelids present with swelling (edema) in the absence of erythema, scaling or pruritus, other eyelid conditions need to be considered, such as angioedema or hypothyroidism-induced periorbital edema.

Who is at Risk for Developing this Disease?

Risk factors for developing eyelid dermatitis are related to its varying etiologies; however, female patients are reported to comprise 90% of cases of eyelid dermatitis.

ACD is the most common cause of eyelid dermatitis, ranging from 50% to 76% of cases.

ICD is sometimes counted together with ACD, hence it is hard to estimate its prevalence.

Patients with a history of a primary dermatologic condition, such as AD, seborrhea, rosacea, psoriasis, are also at higher risk of developing contact (allergic or irritant) eyelid dermatitis due to already present alteration of skin barrier.

Expected results of diagnostic studies

Contact eyelid dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis in most cases, as history in combination with improvement when avoiding the allergen/irritant are enough to finalize diagnosis.

In more hard cases, patch testing to a number of contact allergens can assist distinguish a specific cause.

Patch testing is the gold standard for evaluation of ACD. Unfortunately a large number of allergens thought to cause ACD of the eyelids are not found on the only patch test material approved by the Food and Drug istration, the TRUE test, necessitating more extensive testing. Even once a relevant allergen has been identified, it can remain a challenge to eliminate contact with the substance or substances that cross-react with the allergen. For example “unscented” or “fragrance-free” formulations do not guarantee the elimination of perfume cross-reactors.

Useful databases own emerged that can assist identify products free of a patients known allergen.

The Contact Allergen Management Program (CAMP) is maintained by and accessible to clinician members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

When vesicles are present, the preparation of a Tzanck smear or a viral culture can assist law out a herpes outbreak. Bacterial culture helps to identify a cause of impetigo.

Contact dermatitis is not generally examined by biopsy and separating allergic from irritant contact dermatitis is impossible by histology. The histology of both shows spongiotic dermatitis (intercellular edema) in early and subacute stages, sometimes with intra-epidermal eosinophils, and the thickened epidermis and papillary dermal fibrosis of lichen simplex chronicus with prolonged involvement.

ATOPIC DERMATITIS OF EYELIDS

Systemic Implications and Complications

Systemic complications associated with eyelid dermatitis are rare.

CONTACT DERMATITIS OF EYELIDS

Systemic contact dermatitis may result from a systemic exposure (injection or oral, intranasal, intravenous istration) to a contact allergen (or one that cross-reacts) in a patient who is already sensitized.

Agents that own been reported to cause systemic allergic contact dermatitis include ethylenediamine, various antibiotics, corticosteroids, fragrances (balsam of Peru), propylene glycol, sorbic acids, metals, cashews, and mangos. Those patients will own extensive body dermatitis, not just eyelids.

Clinical features include a widespread eczematous eruption favoring the buttock and flexural areas, which may be accompanied by generalized systemic complaints including fever, malaise, nausea, and headaches.

The diagnosis can be made by detailed history and patch testing as described previously.

ATOPIC DERMATITIS OF EYELIDS

Atopic dermatitis is commonly associated with respiratory allergy, asthma, and less commonly food allergies. Patients with atopic dermatitis are more susceptible to bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) and viral infections (molluscum contagiosum, warts and herpes virus) due to disrupted barrier function, defects in cellular immunity and decreased levels of antimicrobial peptides that are generally present in the skin.

Viral and bacterial cultures, Tzanck smears, or viral polymerase chain reaction asays (PCRs) can assist make the diagnosis.

If herpes virus infection is suspected and involves the periocular region, immediate evaluation by an ophthalmologist is warranted to check for corneal involvement (herpes keratitis), which can lead to blindness if left untreated.

Keratoconus (conical cornea) is associated with chronic atopic dermatitis, and numerous studies propose that excessive eyelid rubbing is the most causative factor in AD patients that develop keratoconus.

Cataracts (subcapsular) own been described both as a manifestation of atopic dermatitis and as a complication of corticosteroid treatment. Currently cataracts associated with atopic dermatitis and corticosteroid therapy are indistinguishable clinically. Ophthalmologic examination is recommended in patients with symptoms of decreased vision and severe chronic eyelid disease.

SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS OF EYELIDS

Severe seborrheic dermatitis may be asociated with neurologic conditions, such as Parkinsons disease, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis.

Severe recalcitrant seborrheic dermatitis has also been observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and may be the presenting sign prompting HIV-1/2 antibody screening.

OCULAR ROSACEA

Ocular complications of rosacea include blepharitis, conjunctivitis, meibomian impactions, hordeola, corneal neovascularization, corneal ulcerations and scarring. Symptoms of recurrent blushing is common in patients with vascular rosacea.

Rarely, the lymphatic vessels can be involved and can lead to persistant woody induration fo the central face, termed solid facial edema. Low grade fever, myalgias, leukocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can be seen in association with rosacea fulminans.

DERMATOMYOSITIS

In patients with dermatomyositis, associated systemic findings include progressive symmetric proximal muscle weakness. Rarely patients can develop cardiac myositis and interstitial lung disease. Muscle disease may present before, concurrently, or after cutaneous manifestations.

In adult patients (usually >50 years of age), dermatomyositis may be the presenting manifestation of an underlying malignancy. Age appropriate or symptom-directed malignancy screening should happen every 6 months for 2 years after diagnosis.

Optimal Therapeutic Approach for this Disease

CONTACT DERMATITIS

When contact dermatitis is suspected, undergoing patch testing with a screening tray as well as patients personal products is often crucial to pinpoint a causative allergen or an irritant. If patch testing is not possible, then open application use test with a suspected topical product can be helpful.

Complete avoidance of the relevant allergen or irritant is paramount.

Patient education should be thorough and patients should get a printed list of the names and synonyms of every positive allergens. Suggestions for possible alternative to the allergenic products should be provided.

Treatment of acute disease should include the use of low-potency topical steroids in an ointment base twice daily for up to 10 days. Alternatively for more severe disease, mid-potency topical steroid in an ointment base can be used twice a day for 3 to 5 days, followed by the use of TCIs until the rash resolves. Although TCIs own minimal systemic absorption, black box warnings should still be discussed.

Not uncommonly TCIs can cause local side effects such as burning and stinging.

Use of these agents after several days of low- to mid-potency topical steroids (after much of the acute inflammation has resolved) can minimize the discomfort. In severe disease, a short course of oral corticosteroids may be necessary; however, this should be reserved for cases in which the allergen is known and the exposure was limited. Treatment with topical steroids should be used with caution, as the eyelids are extremely thin and are more prone to the adverse side effects such as atrophy, and in chronic use cases can lead to glaucoma and cataracts.

ATOPIC DERMATITIS

For acute flare-ups, aggressive treatment with medium strength topical steroids in an ointment base for 3 TO 5 days may be necessary, followed by use of TCIs until clear (or low-potency topical steroids for 5 to 7 more days).

application of cool compresses for 20 to 30 minutes prior to application of the topical steroid can be beneficial. However, cool compresses should be used with caution as it may lead to excessive dryness or irritation from repeated wet-to-dry cycling.

For chronic or persistent disease, daily to twice daily use of TCIs may be necessary. For mild disease, low-potency topical steroids twice daily up to 10 days are effective.

For maintenance, ample moisturization to restore the skin barrier is crucial. Examples of such agents include plain % white petrolatum, or thick over-the-counter moisturizing creams (eg, Cetaphil, Eucerin, Aquaphor, Aveeno). Elimination of potential irritants is also significant in disease control.

Oral antihistamines such as diphenhydramine or hydroxyzine or doxepin can be used at bedtime to assist break the itch-scratch cycle during sleep.

Patients should be warned about the sedative side effects of these medications.

SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS

A variety of treatment options exists. The mainstay of eyelid and facial disease treatment is ketoconazole 2% cream. Shampoos containing salicyclic acid, selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione and ketoconazole are generally used to treat scalp disease. These agents can also be used to treat the eyelids but should be diluted to minimize irritancy. A short course of a low-potency non-fluorinated topical steroid can also be used to treat acute flares, however, the relapse rate is high.

TCIs can be useful in severe cases or in those who fail to reply to low-potency topical steroids or are intolerant of ketoconazole cream.

ROSACEA

Oral tetracyclines are an effective treatment option for moderate-to-severe ocular rosacea. Treatment should start with a higher dosing regimen (doxycycline or minocycline to mg daily or tetracycline mg QID or mg BID) for 6 weeks, then tapering off completely or to a lower-dose maintenance regimen. Potential side effects of this class of medications include but are not limited to gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), vaginal yeast infections, photosensitivity, and rarely hypersensitivity skin reactions.

Low-dose doxycycline/minocycline (50mg daily) and extended release formulations of those medications can be used if higher doses can not be tolerated.

For milder disease, proper eyelid hygiene can assist reduce symptoms. This includes warm compresses for 5 to 10 minutes, accompanied by tender massage of the tarsal plate toward the lid margin. This serves to turn over stale and stagnant lipid secretions from the meiobian glands. Artificial tears can also be helpful for dry eyes. Also topical antibiotics applied to the lid margins can be helpful in decreasing the bacterial flora.

Topical corticosteroids occasionally can be used to control severe flares, however, long-term use is discouraged, as it can lead to glaucoma and cataracts, as well as exacerbation of acneiform-type rosacea on the relax of the face.

DERMATOMYOSITIS

Systemic treatment of dermatomyositis often depends on the level of muscle inflammation or symptoms of weakness, as well as severity of skin involvement. Such treatments are beyond the scope of this chapter.

What is the Evidence?

Amin, KA, Belsito, DV.

The aetiology of eyelid dermatitis: a year retrospective analysis. Contact Dermatitis. vol. pp. (This retrospective study evaluated more than patch test patients, 8% of which had eyelid dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis was the most common cause, surpassed only by seborrheic dermatitis when the eyelids alone were affected.)

Goossens, A. Contact allergic reactions on the eyes and eyelids. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol.

vol. pp. (This large study examined more than patients with conjunctivitis or eyelid dermatitis and found allergic contact dermatitis in 56% of patients tested. The study reviews classes of allergens, their sources, and modes of exposure.)

Guin, JD. Eyelid dermatitis: experience in cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. vol. pp. (This article reviews cases of eyelid dermatitis. With patch testing and ancillary tests a relevant allergic contact dermatitis was found in 76% of patients. Among the 12% of patients that had atopic dermatitis, 70% had a relevant allergen.

Seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and connective tissue disease each constituted less than 5% of cases.)

Papier, A, Tuttle, DJ, Mahar, TJ. Differential diagnosis of the swollen red eyelid. Am Fam Physician. vol. pp. (A useful overview for general practitioners who are likely to see a mixture of primary dermatologic conditions as well as trauma, infection, and malignancy.)

Peralejo, B, Beltrani, V, Bielory, L.

Dermatologic and allergic conditions of the eyelid. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. vol. pp. (A wide literature review of eyelid dermatoses, their diagnosis, and treatment.)

Rietschel, RL, Warshaw, EM, Sasseville, D, Fowler, JF, DeLeo, VA, Belsito, DV. North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Common contact allergens associated with eyelid dermatitis: data from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group study period. Dermatitis. vol.

What is excellent for swollen eyes from allergies

pp. 7(Examining data on patients with exclusively eyelid dermatitis, patients screened by patch testing of 65 allergens had a relevant positive exposure 72% of the time. 65% of these positives could be attributed to a shorter list of only 26 allergens, a series proposed as a potential screening set for eyelid dermatitis.)

Zug, KA, Palay, DA, Rock, B. Dermatologic diagnosis and treatment of itchy red eyelids. Surv Ophthalmol. vol. pp. (Asuccinct review focusing on the physical examination, history, and differential diagnosis of the inflamed eyelid.)

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The feeling of your eyes burning typically indicates a minor irritant that will go away as soon as your tears wash your eye out. (Learn More) Sometimes, the sensation of burning or stinging eyes indicates a more severe problem, love a chemical burn or sunburn on the eye, or chronic dry eyes that require more intensive treatment than over-the-counter eyedrops. (Learn More)

You may own an eye infection called conjunctivitis, an infection surrounding the eye, or a chronic condition that causes changes to the eye. (Learn More) You may also own an underlying chronic illness.

The only way to treat burning eyes that do not go away in a few hours is to visit a doctor. (Learn More)


Conjunctivitis

More commonly called pink eye, conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection in the transparent membrane, or conjunctiva, which lines the eyes and covers the white area of the eyeball.

Little blood vessels become inflamed, making them more visible, so one symptom of conjunctivitis is red, irritated-looking eyes. This disease is caused by bacteria or viruses, but the inflammation is also associated with allergies or, in newborn babies, an incompletely opened tear duct.

Conjunctivitis is extremely contagious, so it is significant to see your general practitioner if you notice dry, itchy, burning, or red eyes; discharge coming from one or both eyes; and increased watering of your eyes, which does not go away in a few hours or a day.

You may need antibiotics or other treatments to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of spreading the disease.


The Best Research Resources

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

This academy’s website provides valuable information to assist readers determine the difference between colds, allergies, and sinusitis. A primer guide on sinusitis also provides more specific information about the chronic version of the illness. Additional resources include a «virtual allergist» that helps you to review your symptoms, as well as a database on pollen counts.

American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI)

In addition to providing a comprehensive guide on sinus infections, the ACAAI website also contains a wealth of information on allergies, asthma, and immunology.

The site’s useful tools include a symptom checker, a way to search for an allergist in your area, and a function that allows you to ask an allergist questions about your symptoms.

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA)

For allergy sufferers, the AAFA website contains an easy-to-understand primer on sinusitis. It also provides comprehensive information on various types of allergies, including those with risk factors for sinusitis.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The CDC website provides basic information on sinus infections and other respiratory illnesses, such as common colds, bronchitis, ear infections, flu, and sore throat.

It offers guidance on how to get symptom relief for those illnesses, as well as preventative tips on practicing good hand hygiene, and a recommended immunization schedule.

U.S. National Library of Medicine

The U.S. National Library of Medicine is the world’s largest biomedical library. As part of the National Institutes of Health, their website provides the basics on sinus infection. It also contains a number of links to join you with more information on treatments, diagnostic procedures, and related issues.


Dry Eye

Some people develop chronic dry eye, which means they do not produce enough tears in their tear ducts, or they own poor quality tears.

Tears are made up of three layers — oil, water, and mucous —and if there is not enough of one or more of these components evenly spread over the eye, the eyes become dry and irritated. This can lead to a burning sensation.

There are numerous causes of chronic dry eye.

  1. Medical conditions love arthritis or diabetes
  2. Environmental conditions love smoke or high wind
  3. Age
  4. Wearing contact lenses too long
  5. Infection
  6. Medicines love antihistamines
  7. Refractive eye surgeries love LASIK

Chronic dry eyes can be treated to reduce or prevent the burning sensation.

Treatments include:

  1. Increasing tear production with prescription eye drops.
  2. Conserving tears by blocking the places where tear ducts drain temporarily with gel plugs or permanently with surgery.
  3. Adding tears with eye drops.
  4. Treating for inflammation in the ocular surface or eyelid.

Lifestyle changes you can make to reduce or prevent dry eye include:

  1. Increase the humidity in your home or office environment.
  2. Drink plenty of water.
  3. Blink often enough and blink more if your eyes feel dry or irritated.
  4. Wear sunglasses outside.
  5. Take nutritional supplements to improve the quality of your tears.

Burning in your eyes can lead to several diverse diagnoses, so it is significant to get assist from an optometrist or ophthalmologist if you suffer a burning sensation in your eyes that does not go away or gets worse over time.



Overview
Your cat’s eye(s) can become inflamed for a variety of reasons, ranging from conditions that are simple to repair to some that are extremely serious.

Some of the most common are:

  1. Scratched cornea: a scratch on the eye can develop into a more serious condition, such as an ulcer
  2. Allergies: as with us, our pets can suffer from allergy-induced itchy, watery eyes 
  3. Glaucoma: a much more serious condition caused by increased pressure within the eye itself
  4. Foreign body: a foreign object in the eye, even eyelashes, can cause the eye to be irritated
  5. Conjunctivitis: the mucus membranes of the eye become inflamed and itchy (This is the most common eye problem among our four-legged friends.) 
  6. Entropion: when the eyelashes are turned inward instead of outward, causing the eye to tear, become irritated, and ultimately infected, if not treated

There are numerous lesser common eye conditions that can cause eye inflammation.

Your veterinarian will work to identify what is troubling your teary-eyed friend.

Symptoms
The most common sign that your cat’s eyes are irritated is redness. Additionally, he may blink or squint excessively, hold his eye closed, rub or paw at his eye, and his eye might tear a lot.

There may also be some mucus or pus-like discharge around your cat’s eye(s).

Diagnosis/Treatment
If you ponder your pet’s eyes are irritated, you should contact your veterinarian for advice. Numerous of the most common situations need medical attention in order to get better.

Your veterinarian will most likely act out a finish ophthalmic examination to determine the cause of the inflammation. In more serious situations, they may send you to a cat eye expert, also referred to as a veterinary ophthalmologist.

Your veterinarian will advise you regarding the best way to care for your pet’s eye(s). One of the most common treatments is to apply medicated drops or ointment to the affected eye. Having your feline compadre sit still while you apply the medication can be extremely challenging. For assist with this, watch an expert apply eye drops to a cat.

Prevention
Because there are so numerous diverse causes of eye inflammation, there is no single prevention that works for every situation. To assist your cat reduce the risk of eye problems, check his eyes daily for any obvious signs of irritation, such as redness or tearing.

If you own any questions or concerns, you should always visit or call your veterinarian – they are your best resource to ensure the health and well-being of your pets.

Medications

Many allergens that trigger allergic rhinitis are airborne, so you can’t always avoid them.

If your symptoms can’t be well-controlled by simply avoiding triggers, your allergist may recommend medications that reduce nasal congestion, sneezing, and an itchy and runny nose. They are available in numerous forms — oral tablets, liquid medication, nasal sprays and eyedrops. Some medications may own side effects, so discuss these treatments with your allergist so they can assist you live the life you want.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy may be recommended for people who don’t reply well to treatment with medications or who experience side effects from medications, who own allergen exposure that is unavoidable or who desire a more permanent solution to their allergies.

Immunotherapy can be extremely effective in controlling allergic symptoms, but it doesn’t assist the symptoms produced by nonallergic rhinitis.

Two types of immunotherapy are available: allergy shots and sublingual (under-the-tongue) tablets.

  1. Allergy shots: A treatment program, which can take three to five years, consists of injections of a diluted allergy extract, istered frequently in increasing doses until a maintenance dose is reached. Then the injection schedule is changed so that the same dose is given with longer intervals between injections. Immunotherapy helps the body build resistance to the effects of the allergen, reduces the intensity of symptoms caused by allergen exposure and sometimes can actually make skin test reactions vanish.

    As resistance develops over several months, symptoms should improve.

  2. Sublingual tablets: This type of immunotherapy was approved by the Food and Drug istration in Starting several months before allergy season begins, patients dissolve a tablet under the tongue daily.

    What is excellent for swollen eyes from allergies

    Treatment can continue for as endless as three years. Only a few allergens (certain grass and ragweed pollens and home dust mite) can be treated now with this method, but it is a promising therapy for the future.

Nasal sprays

Nonprescription saline nasal sprays will assist counteract symptoms such as dry nasal passages or thick nasal mucus. Unlike decongestant nasal sprays, a saline nasal spray can be used as often as it is needed.

Sometimes an allergist may recommend washing (douching) the nasal passage. There are numerous OTC delivery systems for saline rinses, including neti pots and saline rinse bottles.

Nasal cromolyn blocks the body’s release of allergy-causing substances. It does not work in every patients. The full dose is four times daily, and improvement of symptoms may take several weeks. Nasal cromolyn can assist prevent allergic nasal reactions if taken prior to an allergen exposure.

Nasal ipratropium bromide spray can assist reduce nasal drainage from allergic rhinitis or some forms of nonallergic rhinitis.

Antihistamines

Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic rhinitis.

These medications counter the effects of histamine, the irritating chemical released within your body when an allergic reaction takes put. Although other chemicals are involved, histamine is primarily responsible for causing the symptoms. Antihistamines are found in eyedrops, nasal sprays and, most commonly, oral tablets and syrup.

Antihistamines assist to relieve nasal allergy symptoms such as:

  1. Eye itching, burning, tearing and redness
  2. Sneezing and an itchy, runny nose
  3. Itchy skin, hives and eczema

There are dozens of antihistamines; some are available over the counter, while others require a prescription.

Patients reply to them in a wide variety of ways.

Generally, the newer (second-generation) products work well and produce only minor side effects. Some people discover that an antihistamine becomes less effective as the allergy season worsens or as their allergies change over time. If you discover that an antihistamine is becoming less effective, tell your allergist, who may recommend a diverse type or strength of antihistamine. If you own excessive nasal dryness or thick nasal mucus, consult an allergist before taking antihistamines.

Contact your allergist for advice if an antihistamine causes drowsiness or other side effects.

Proper use: Short-acting antihistamines can be taken every four to six hours, while timed-release antihistamines are taken every 12 to 24 hours. The short-acting antihistamines are often most helpful if taken 30 minutes before an anticipated exposure to an allergen (such as at a picnic during ragweed season).

Timed-release antihistamines are better suited to long-term use for those who need daily medications. Proper use of these drugs is just as significant as their selection. The most effective way to use them is before symptoms develop. A dose taken early can eliminate the need for numerous later doses to reduce established symptoms. Numerous times a patient will tell that he or she “took one, and it didn’t work.” If the patient had taken the antihistamine regularly for three to four days to build up blood levels of the medication, it might own been effective.

Side effects: Older (first-generation) antihistamines may cause drowsiness or performance impairment, which can lead to accidents and personal injury.

Even when these medications are taken only at bedtime, they can still cause considerable impairment the following day, even in people who do not feel drowsy. For this reason, it is significant that you do not drive a car or work with dangerous machinery when you take a potentially sedating antihistamine. Some of the newer antihistamines do not cause drowsiness.

A frequent side effect is excessive dryness of the mouth, nose and eyes. Less common side effects include restlessness, nervousness, overexcitability, insomnia, dizziness, headaches, euphoria, fainting, visual disturbances, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distress, constipation, diarrhea, increased or decreased urination, urinary retention, high or low blood pressure, nightmares (especially in children), sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, chest tightness or palpitations.

Men with prostate enlargement may encounter urinary problems while on antihistamines. Consult your allergist if these reactions occur.

Important precautions:

  1. While antihistamines own been taken safely by millions of people in the final 50 years, don’t take antihistamines before telling your allergist if you are allergic to, or intolerant of, any medicine; are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medication; are breast-feeding; own glaucoma or an enlarged prostate; or are ill.
  2. Keep these medications out of the reach of children.
  3. Do not use more than one antihistamine at a time, unless prescribed.
  4. Some antihistamines appear to be safe to take during pregnancy, but there own not been enough studies to determine the absolute safety of antihistamines in pregnancy.

    Again, consult your allergist or your obstetrician if you must take antihistamines.

  5. Follow your allergist’s instructions.
  6. Know how the medication affects you before working with heavy machinery, driving or doing other performance-intensive tasks; some products can slow your reaction time.
  7. Alcohol and tranquilizers increase the sedation side effects of antihistamines.
  8. Never take anyone else’s medication.

Leukatriene pathway inhibitors

Leukotriene pathway inhibitors (montelukast, zafirlukast and zileuton) block the action of leukotriene, a substance in the body that can cause symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

These drugs are also used to treat asthma.

Intranasal corticosteroids

Intranasal corticosteroids are the single most effective drug class for treating allergic rhinitis. They can significantly reduce nasal congestion as well as sneezing, itching and a runny nose.

Ask your allergist about whether these medications are appropriate and safe for you. These sprays are designed to avoid the side effects that may happen from steroids that are taken by mouth or injection. Take care not to spray the medication against the middle portion of the nose (the nasal septum). The most common side effects are local irritation and nasal bleeding.

Some older preparations own been shown to own some effect on children’s growth; data about some newer steroids don’t indicate an effect on growth.

Decongestants

Decongestants assist relieve the stuffiness and pressure caused by swollen nasal tissue. They do not contain antihistamines, so they do not cause antihistaminic side effects. They do not relieve other symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Oral decongestants are available as prescription and nonprescription medications and are often found in combination with antihistamines or other medications.

It is not unusual for patients using decongestants to experience insomnia if they take the medication in the afternoon or evening. If this occurs, a dose reduction may be needed. At times, men with prostate enlargement may encounter urinary problems while on decongestants. Patients using medications to manage emotional or behavioral problems should discuss this with their allergist before using decongestants. Patients with high blood pressure or heart disease should check with their allergist before using.

Pregnant patients should also check with their allergist before starting decongestants.

Nonprescription decongestant nasal sprays work within minutes and final for hours, but you should not use them for more than a few days at a time unless instructed by your allergist. Prolonged use can cause rhinitis medicamentosa, or rebound swelling of the nasal tissue. Stopping the use of the decongestant nasal spray will cure that swelling, provided that there is no underlying disorder.

Oral decongestants are found in numerous over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications, and may be the treatment of choice for nasal congestion.

They don’t cause rhinitis medicamentosa but need to be avoided by some patients with high blood pressure. If you own high blood pressure or heart problems, check with your allergist before using them.

Eye allergy preparations and eyedrops

Eye allergy preparations may be helpful when the eyes are affected by the same allergens that trigger rhinitis, causing redness, swelling, watery eyes and itching. OTC eyedrops and oral medications are commonly used for short-term relief of some eye allergy symptoms. They may not relieve every symptoms, though, and prolonged use of some of these drops may actually cause your condition to worsen.

Prescription eyedrops and oral medications also are used to treat eye allergies.

Prescription eyedrops provide both short- and long-term targeted relief of eye allergy symptoms, and can be used to manage them.

Check with your allergist or pharmacist if you are unsure about a specific drug or formula.

Overview
Your cat’s eye(s) can become inflamed for a variety of reasons, ranging from conditions that are simple to repair to some that are extremely serious.

Some of the most common are:

  1. Scratched cornea: a scratch on the eye can develop into a more serious condition, such as an ulcer
  2. Allergies: as with us, our pets can suffer from allergy-induced itchy, watery eyes 
  3. Glaucoma: a much more serious condition caused by increased pressure within the eye itself
  4. Foreign body: a foreign object in the eye, even eyelashes, can cause the eye to be irritated
  5. Conjunctivitis: the mucus membranes of the eye become inflamed and itchy (This is the most common eye problem among our four-legged friends.) 
  6. Entropion: when the eyelashes are turned inward instead of outward, causing the eye to tear, become irritated, and ultimately infected, if not treated

There are numerous lesser common eye conditions that can cause eye inflammation.

Your veterinarian will work to identify what is troubling your teary-eyed friend.

Symptoms
The most common sign that your cat’s eyes are irritated is redness. Additionally, he may blink or squint excessively, hold his eye closed, rub or paw at his eye, and his eye might tear a lot.

There may also be some mucus or pus-like discharge around your cat’s eye(s).

Diagnosis/Treatment
If you ponder your pet’s eyes are irritated, you should contact your veterinarian for advice. Numerous of the most common situations need medical attention in order to get better. Your veterinarian will most likely act out a finish ophthalmic examination to determine the cause of the inflammation.

In more serious situations, they may send you to a cat eye expert, also referred to as a veterinary ophthalmologist.

Your veterinarian will advise you regarding the best way to care for your pet’s eye(s). One of the most common treatments is to apply medicated drops or ointment to the affected eye. Having your feline compadre sit still while you apply the medication can be extremely challenging. For assist with this, watch an expert apply eye drops to a cat.

Prevention
Because there are so numerous diverse causes of eye inflammation, there is no single prevention that works for every situation.

To assist your cat reduce the risk of eye problems, check his eyes daily for any obvious signs of irritation, such as redness or tearing.

If you own any questions or concerns, you should always visit or call your veterinarian – they are your best resource to ensure the health and well-being of your pets.

Avoidance

The first approach in managing seasonal or perennial forms of hay fever should be to avoid the allergens that trigger symptoms.

Outdoor exposure

  1. Don’t hang clothing outdoors to dry; pollen may cling to towels and sheets.
  2. Wear glasses or sunglasses when outdoors to minimize the quantity of pollen getting into your eyes.
  3. Avoid using window fans that can draw pollens and molds into the house.
  4. Wear a pollen mask (such as a NIOSH-rated 95 filter mask) when mowing the lawn, raking leaves or gardening, and take appropriate medication beforehand.
  5. Stay indoors as much as possible when pollen counts are at their peak, generally during the midmorning and early evening (this may vary according to plant pollen), and when wind is blowing pollens around.
  6. Try not to rub your eyes; doing so will irritate them and could make your symptoms worse.

Indoor exposure

  1. To limit exposure to mold, hold the humidity in your home low (between 30 and 50 percent) and clean your bathrooms, kitchen and basement regularly.

    Use a dehumidifier, especially in the basement and in other damp, humid places, and empty and clean it often. If mold is visible, clean it with mild detergent and a 5 percent bleach solution as directed by an allergist.

  2. Reduce exposure to dust mites, especially in the bedroom. Use “mite-proof” covers for pillows, comforters and duvets, and mattresses and box springs. Wash your bedding frequently, using boiling water (at least degrees Fahrenheit).
  3. Keep windows closed, and use air conditioning in your car and home.

    What is excellent for swollen eyes from allergies

    Make certain to hold your air conditioning unit clean.

  4. Clean floors with a damp rag or mop, rather than dry-dusting or sweeping.

Exposure to pets

  1. If you are allergic to a household pet, hold the animal out of your home as much as possible. If the pet must be inside, hold it out of the bedroom so you are not exposed to animal allergens while you sleep.
  2. Wash your hands immediately after petting any animals; wash your clothes after visiting friends with pets.
  3. Close the air ducts to your bedroom if you own forced-air or central heating or cooling. Replace carpeting with hardwood, tile or linoleum, every of which are easier to hold dander-free.

Treatments that are not recommended for allergic rhinitis

  1. Antibiotics: Effective for the treatment of bacterial infections, antibiotics do not affect the course of uncomplicated common colds (a viral infection) and are of no benefit for noninfectious rhinitis, including allergic rhinitis.
  2. Nasal surgery: Surgery is not a treatment for allergic rhinitis, but it may assist if patients own nasal polyps or chronic sinusitis that is not responsive to antibiotics or nasal steroid sprays.

How to Stay Healthy, Breathe Easier, and Feel Energetic This Winter

Indoor allergies, freezing weather, less sunlight — winter can make it hard to stay well mentally and physically.

Discover out how to protect yourself against seasonal allergies, the winter blahs, freezing winds, comfort-eating traps, and fatigue this year.

Learn More About the Ultimate Winter Wellness Guide

Sinusitis can be a confusing thing to treat for anyone. Because a sinus infection can be so easily confused with a common freezing or an allergy, figuring out the best way to alleviate your symptoms can be difficult.

Even more challenging, a sinus infection can evolve over time from a viral infection to a bacterial infection, or even from a short-term acute infection to a long-term chronic illness.

We own provided for you the best sources of information on sinus infections to assist you rapidly define your ailment and get the best and most efficient treatment possible.


What Causes Your Eyes to Burn?

However, if the sensation of burning in your eyes does not go away or gets worse, there could be several causes.

Irritants including allergens may trigger a burning eye sensation; severe eye problems may lead to burning eyes as one of the first symptoms; or an infection in or around the eye could cause burning, watering, or other related sensations. Some of these can be treated at home, while others require ongoing, regular treatment an optometrist or ophthalmologist. Some are considered medical emergencies and require emergency treatment.


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