What is drechslera spicifera allergy

Although the fungus may persist for months in host debris or as conidia in the soil it is considered a poor saprophyte. Seedlings or young plants become infected at the roots, crown or other under ground parts. As infections spread to above ground stems conidia develop and secondary spread of conidia occurs with the assist of wind or splashing rain. Seedling disease is favored by stress factors such as planting in boiling, dry soils. Warm humid conditions favor development of the spot blotch phase.


How to treat and remove Bipolaris?

Bipolaris molds can cause adverse effects if not managed on time. Treating allergic reactions or other serious afflictions can be fairly expensive.

In extreme cases, surgery is required to treat the problems. In any case, fighting these pathogens before they set in is a better option.

Mold Busters is a well-established organization that offers services that purpose at eradicating any type of mold, including Bipolaris molds, from your home or office. The services offered include de-humidification of wet surfaces where the fungi can thrive, testing the air for mold spores, removing mold growths, making basements resistant to mold, treatment using antimicrobial and antifungal agents and improving indoor air quality.

These services are performed professionally and at extremely affordable costs. They can protect your family from the potentially disastrous health effects that can arise from the presence of Bipolaris molds.

In conclusion, mold can potentially be extremely harmful. In nature, fungi are necessary for nutrient cycling as they assist in the decomposition of organic material but they are not extremely friendly to humans. In addition to the potentially fatal diseases they can cause, agricultural yields can also be decimated by their presence.

Fighting these harmful pathogens should be prioritized in order to protect our health and to minimise economic losses in agriculture.

To study more about the prevention and eradication of mold, contact Mold Busters today to schedule an appointment.

References

  • Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium. Bipolaris Species. Retrieved from
  • Ullstrup AJ (). The impacts of the southern corn leaf blight epidemics of – Annual Reviews of Phytopathology. –
  • Kobayashi H, Sano A, Aragane N, Fukuoka M, Tanaka M, Kawaura F, Fukuno Y, Matsuishi E, Hayashi S (). Disseminated infection by Bipolaris spicifera in an immunocompetent subject.

    Med Mycol. 46(4)

  • Scheffer RP (). The nature of disease in plants. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK.
  • Duveiller E, Gilchrist LI (). Production constraints due to Bipolaris sorokiniana in wheat: current situation and future prospects; pp. – Proceedings of the CIMMYT/UNDP workshop, Nashipur (Dinajpur), Bangladesh, February
  • Flanagan KL, Bryceson AD (). Disseminated infection due to Bipolaris australiensis in a young immunocompetent man: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis. 25(2)
  • Manamgoda DS, Rossman AY, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, Madrid H, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD ().

    The genus Bipolaris. Stud Mycol. –

  • Sivanesan A (). Graminicolous species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum and their teleomorphs. Mycological Papers–
  • Howard DH (). Pathogenic Fungi in Humans and Animals. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp
  • Manamgoda DS, Cai L, McKenzie EHC (). A phylogenetic and taxonomic re-evaluation of the BipolarisCochliobolusCurvularia complicated.

    What is drechslera spicifera allergy

    Fungal Diversity. –

  • Frank T, Esquenazi Y, Nigo M, Wanger A, Portnoy B, Shepard S (). Disseminated Phaeohyphomycosis with Brain Abscess and Biliary Invasion Due to Bipolaris spp. in an Immunocompetent Patient. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 46(4)

Mold Busters created an open-source library of microscopy images of various kinds of mold which are used to train machine learning algorithms.

If you would love to get access to it, just fill out the form under and we will contact you shortly:

Author:Tom Creswell, Purdue University

Mold Busters created an open-source library of microscopy images of various kinds of mold which are used to train machine learning algorithms. If you would love to get access to it, just fill out the form under and we will contact you shortly:

Author:Tom Creswell, Purdue University


What is Bipolaris mold?

Bipolaris molds are plant parasites that are majorly found in plant debris, soil, and other plant materials.

They are commonly associated several crop diseases, such as leaf spots, leaf blights, melting outs, root rots and foot rots [3]. They thrive in semi-dry environments and spread through wind dispersal.

These molds appear brownish-grey or white in colour. However, the colour turns into an olive-green tone over time. It has a wool-like texture and it multiplies within a extremely short period of time. As a matter of fact, Bipolaris can reach maturity within a period of only five days.

Bipolaris molds reproduce through spore formation. As these spores are airborne and are easily dispersed by wind, they can occasionally be inhaled. Generally this isn’t a cause for concern but in certain cases the mold can grow inside respiratory tracts of human beings and animals.

What are known Bipolaris species?

According to the latest studies, 47 species are currently recognized in the Bipolaris genus.

Some of the species of Bipolaris include B.

clavata, B. coffeana, B. crotonis, B. drechsleri, B. maydis, B. microstegii, B. oryzae, B. sorokiniana, B. yamadae, B. zeicola and numerous others.

Most Bipolaris species are known to be pathogenic to grasses and other plants. Several species own been reported to cause diverse health effects on human beings once inhaled.

Bipolars facts and statistics

Historically, Bipolaris molds own caused significant losses of agricultural yields and own been the cause of famine in several regions of the world.

Notably, the Bengal famine in India () occurred due to widespread loss of rice caused by B. oryzae [4]. Furthermore, Southern corn leaf blight caused by B. maydis in the s resulted in huge losses in maize crops in the USA and UK [5]. Furthermore, B. sorokiniana is considered to be the most economically significant wheat pathogen in warm regions [6].

Several known human pathogens, including B. australiensis, B. hawaiiensis and B. spicifera own recently been reclassified to the Curvularia genus. However, as these species were perhaps the most well known in the Bipolaris genus we will mention them in this article.

These species are well studied due to their pathogenicity. They own been known to cause meningitis, paranasal sinusitis and subcutaneous, eye, pulmonary and various other disseminated infections [7].

With this in mind, eating leftover food should be avoided at every costs. In case you discover or suspect the presence of Bipolaris mold in your home, Mold Busters are only a phone call away. We offer leading mold remediation services that will save you from the substantial costs that may be incurred as a result of sharing your home with these pathogens.


Pathogen

Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker is an ascomycete fungus with a wide host range in the Poaceae family.

It is of greatest economic importance as the cause of seedling diseases, common root rot and spot blotch of barley and wheat. Mycelium: deep olive brown on plant material. Conidiophores: single or clustered, simple, septate, erect, x μm Conidia: Produced terminally, olive brown, eliptical with tapered ends and a prominent hilum (basal scar). x μm, septate, slightly curved, conidial wall smooth with thickenings at the septa.

The sexual reproductive stage [Cochliobolus sativus (S.

Ito & Kurib.) Drechsler ex Dastur] is rarely seen in nature but may be induced to form in pure culture with compatible mating types. Pseudothecia: Dark brown to black, globose, μm diameter Asci: Clavate, one to eight spored; bitunicate; x μm Ascospores: Hyaline to light brown, with septa, filamentous and spirally arranged in the ascus, x μm.

Synonyms include: Helminthosporium sorokinianum Sacc. , Helminthosporium sativum Pammel, C.M. King & Bakke , Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. & B.L. Jain , Cochliobolus sativus (S. Ito & Kurib.) Drechsler ex Dastur and Ophiobolus sativus S. Ito & Kurib.


Bipolaris

There are numerous diverse species of fungi that can affect human beings, animals, and plants. These organisms own diverse habitats where they are best suited to thrive. They can often cause adverse effects on the bodies of their hosts.

However, almost every fungi are beneficial to the surrounding environment, and numerous of them are necessary elements in their respective ecosystems. For example, most fungi are saprophytic and therefore responsible for decomposition of organic matter that in turn improves the fertility of the soil.

As such, they are key players in maintaining the flow of matter and energy in nature. This article reviews molds from the Bipolaris genus, their habitat, health effects they can cause as well as ways in which they can be treated.

With 47 identified species [1], Bipolaris species are best known as plant pathogens that can be found in plant debris, soil, and a variety of other materials. They own worldwide distribution and can grow in semi-dry environments. The microscopic spores they use to reproduce are often dispersed throughout the air by wind.

Bipolaris molds own a velvety or wool-like texture.

They are initially white to greyish-brown and turn green to black over time. Under the correct conditions Bipolaris molds can grow rapidly, becoming mature within five days.

Most species of Bipolaris are known to be pathogenic to plants, particularly grasses. Notably, it is associated with numerous significant agricultural commodities such as rice, maize, wheat and sorghum. The most well known species are B. spicifera, B.

australiensis and B. hawaiiensis. However, these species own recently been transferred to the Curvularia genus [2]. B. sorokiniana has been known to produce two mycotoxins, prehelminthosporal and sorokinianin [1]. However, the effects of these toxins on humans are unknown.


Symptoms and Signs

B. sorokiniana causes seedling blight, leaf spotting (spot blotch), root rot and black point of wheat and barley. Infected seedlings own brown lesions on roots, coleoptiles and subcrown internodes.

Brown lesions are also a feature of the crown and root rot infections pm older plants. Leaf spotting (spot blotch) shows up as little brown lesions less than 1 cm in diameter, which may coalesce into large elongated blotches of necrotic tissue. Spot blotch appears more frequently in wet weather, on lower leaves and following head development.


What are Bipolaris health effects?

Bipolaris species are some of the leading causative agents of phaeohyphomycosis.

Their spores are potential allergens that can cause allergic fungal sinusitis once inhaled. Being capable to be dispersed by wind, they are a major cause of respiratory allergies and complications. For people with severe allergies, the spores of this fungus can attach to the mucous in the upper respiratory tract and grow, causing a persistent allergic reaction that gradually leads to permanent damage of the sinuses. Some of the allergic reactions that Bipolaris can cause to humans include allergic asthma, redness of the eyes, hay fever, anaphylaxis, swelling of the dermis, urticarial or hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Bipolaris can also cause pathogenic reactions.

The pathogens may invade the cornea, skin, the aorta, bone, lungs, and central nervous system causing brain lesions. Among the symptoms of respiratory effects are coughing, wheezing, stuffy or a runny nose and asthma. In other cases, patients may experience itching, dermatitis, and eczema [7, 8]. Although most of the health effects of Bipolaris molds are associated with immunocomprimised individuals, they own been known to affect young and healthy individuals as well [9, 10, 11].

Luckily, these molds can be identified through various air sampling and surface sampling techniques. At Mold Busters, we provide same-day mold testing with quick and precise results.


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