What is cladosporium herbarum allergies

Allergens from this family

The fungal allergens Alt a 8 from Alternaria alternata and Cla h 8 from Cladosporium herbarum are mannitol dehydrogenases [2].

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Links to Pfam

Family-defining Pfam domains (at least one of these domains is present in each family member):

Pfam domain Pfam clan
PF short chain dehydrogenase CL FAD/NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold Superfamily
PF Enoyl-(Acyl carrier protein) reductase CL FAD/NAD(P)-binding Rossmann fold Superfamily

References

  • Jornvall H, Persson B, Krook M, Atrian S, Gonzalez-Duarte R, Jeffery J, Ghosh D:
    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR).
    Biochemistry , 34, [PubMed]
  • Simon-Nobbe B, Denk U, Schneider PB, Radauer C, Teige M, Crameri R, Hawranek T, Lang R, Richter K, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Nobbe S, Hartl A, Breitenbach M:
    NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase, a major allergen of Cladosporium herbarum.
    J Biol Chem , , [PubMed][Full Text]

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Biochemical properties

The short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family (SDR) is a extremely large family of enzymes, most of which are known to be NAD or NADP-dependent oxidoreductases [1].

Links to Wikipedia

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If you own updates or corrections for this entry, please contact the site istrator: christian.radauer@meduniwien.ac.at .

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Biochemical properties

The short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family (SDR) is a extremely large family of enzymes, most of which are known to be NAD or NADP-dependent oxidoreductases [1].

Links to Wikipedia

[top]

If you own updates or corrections for this entry, please contact the site istrator: christian.radauer@meduniwien.ac.at .


Part Description

LP Cladosporium herbarum
Cladosporium is one of the most common colonizers of dying and dead plants and also occurs in various soil types, and on food. This mold is frequently found in uncleaned refrigerators, foodstuffs, on moist window frames, in houses with poor ventilation, with straw roofs, and situated in low, damp areas. It has been isolated from fuel tanks, face creams, paints and textiles.

In the allergic population, sensitisation to moulds may vary from 5 to 30%.

The wide range of allergenic proteins in C. herbarum may result in sensitisation and subsequent expression of a range of immune-related diseases. Cladosporium sensitisation is particularly associated with severe or life-threatening asthma. Upper respiratory symptoms happen with exposure to Cladosporium, but asthma symptoms are more prevalent. Cladosporium may also result in allergic bronchopulmonary cladosporiosis. Copyright Copyright © Phadia AB.Source: ImmunoCap, ImmunoCap

between Malassezia and host cells in the pathogenesis of AD. Malassezia yeasts in canine atopic dermatitis Malassezia pachydermatis is the predominant organism amongst the skin mycobiota of dogs [56]; the lipid- dependent Malassezia spp.

associated with human diseases are only extremely rarely encountered [57\u]. An association between Malassezia dermatitis and CAD was recognized in one of the original case series describing M. pachydermatis as a skin pathogen in dogs; Mason and Evans diagnosed concurrent CAD in 2 out of 11 cases [60]. CAD tends to be the most frequently diagnosed concurrent disease in dogs with Malassezia dermatitis [61,62]. Studies of Malassezia colonization in dogs with CAD own consistently shown that, as a group, atopic dogs own higher skin populations of M. pachydermatis than healthy control dogs, particularly in the axilla, groin, interdigital skin, and beneath the tail [63,64].

More recently, Nardoni et al. [65] also showed that M. pachydermatis could be frequently isolated from the interdigital skin (71%) and ears (63%) in a group of 41 atopic dogs. Interestingly, a genetic subtype (3D) of M. pachydermatis, identified by sequencing of the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS-1) region of the ribosomal DNA, was found to be particularly prevalent in Japanese dogs with CAD [66]. Phospholipase activity from subtype 3D in vitro was higher when compared with subtypes isolated from healthy dogs [66]; phospholipase activity has recently been identified as a candidate virulence factor in M. pachydermatis infection in dogs [67], in parallel with reports of the potential role of lipases in the pathogenesis of Malassezia-associated skin diseases in humans [68,69].

The increased colonization of canine atopic skin by M. pachydermatis is associated with strong serum IgG responses that are not protective [70\u]. The role of IgE and immediate hypersensitivity is of specific interest in atopic dogs, particularly in view of the dramatic clinical response of some severely affected atopic dogs to antifungal therapy [74], and its role in human AD. Immediate intradermal test reactivity to M. pachydermatis allergens responses show that direct contact with the yeast induces skin inflammation; (3) sensitization occurs to an array of recombinant allergens; (4) AD patients own Th2 cells specific to Malassezia; and (5) antifungal treatment results in a clinical improvement [46,47].

What is cladosporium herbarum allergies

Sensitization to M. sympodialis has also been demonstrated in a little number of human patients with the so-called \uintrinsic form\u of AD; these patients did not own elevated IgE titres to environmental or food allergens, but showed positive skin-prick or patch-test reactivity to Malassezia or peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to crude or recombinant allergens [47]. The use of crude extracts of fungi such as Malassezia is potentially associated with difficulties relating to instability and variability, as previously discussed in relation to environmental moulds.

The characterization and expression of Malassezia-derived recombinant proteins has led to recognition of sequence homology with human proteins; some of these host proteins own been shown to induce skin-prick test reactions and specific T-cell proliferation in patients sensitized to the corresponding fungal allergens, indicating that autoreactive skin-homing T cells might be relevant for cutaneous inflammation in patients with AD sensitized to Malassezia species based on molecular mimicry [48]. Mala s 11, a kDa allergen cloned from M. sympodialis, has sequence homology with manganese superoxide dismutase [49].

Superoxide dismutase enzymes exist in eukaryotic cells to neutralize toxic reactive oxygen species generated in mitochondria by the process of oxidative phosphorylation [50]. In pathogenic fungi, superoxide dismutase enzymes may act as a virulence factor by providing resistance against reactive oxygen species generated within phagocytic cells [50].

What is cladosporium herbarum allergies

Evidence has been presented that suggests IgE-mediated sensitization to Malassezia-derived manganese superoxide dismutase in humans might lead to cross-reaction and autoimmunity to manganese superoxide dismutase derived from host cells [51]. Similar issues of cross reactivity own been proposed in relation to Mala s 6, a cyclophilin [52] and Mala s 13, a thioredoxin (Trx). Mala s 13 T-cell clones generated from peripheral blood and skin biopsy specimens of positive patch-test reactions in patients with AD sensitized to Mala s 13 and human Trx were fully cross reactive with human Trx [53].

Whilst the allergens of M. sympodialis own been investigated in detail, much less is known about the allergens of M. globosa. A 40\ukDa protein from M. globosa termed MG 42, shown to be highly reactive to IgE by western immunoblotting using sera from human AD patients, has been cloned and sequenced [54]. The sequence showed similarity to members of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) family, although no IgE cross- 62 Canine Allergy 6. Nolles G, Hoekstra MO, Schouten JP, et al. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E for fungi in atopic children. Clinical and Experimental Allergy ; \u 7. Prester L. Indoor exposure to mould allergens. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju ; \u 8.

Chang FY, Lee JH, Yang YH, et al. Analysis of the serum levels of fungi-specific immunoglobulin E in patients with allergic diseases. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology ; 49\u 9. Hedayati MT, Arabzadehmoghadam A, Hajheydari Z. Specific IgE against Alternaria alternata in atopic dermatitis and asthma patients. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; \u Montealegre F, Meyer B, Chardon D, et al. Comparative prevalence of sensitization to common animal, plant and mould allergens in subjects with asthma, or atopic dermatitis and/or allergic rhinitis living in a tropical environment. Clinical and Experimental Allergy ; 51\u Scalabrin DM, Bavbek S, Perzanowski MS, et al.

Use of specific IgE in assessing the relevance of fungal and dust mite allergens to atopic dermatitis: a comparison with asthmatic and nonasthmatic control subjects. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; \u Cantani A, Ciaschi V. Epidemiology of Alternaria alternata allergy: a prospective study in Italian asthmatic children.

What is cladosporium herbarum allergies

European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 8: \u Reijula K, Leino M, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, et al. IgE-mediated allergy to fungal allergens in Finland with special reference to Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology ; \u Crameri R, Weichel M, Fluckiger S, et al. Fungal allergies: a yet unsolved problem. Chemical Immunology and Allergy ; \u Vailes LD, Perzanowski MS, Wheatley LM, et al. IgE and IgG antibody responses to recombinant Alt a 1 as a marker of sensitization to Alternaria in asthma and atopic dermatitis.

Clinical and Experimental Allergy ; \u Disch R, Menz G, Blaser K, et al. Diverse reactivity to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I/a in patients with atopic dermatitis or allergic asthma sensitised to Aspergillus fumigatus. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology ; 89\u Hill PB, DeBoer DJ. The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (IV): environmental allergens. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology ; \u Scott DW. Observations on canine atopy. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association ; 91\u Nesbitt GH, Kedan GS, Cacciolo P. Canine atopy. 1. Etiology and diagnosis.

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