What is an atopic allergy

What is an atopic allergy

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Allergen Details:

Allergen name: Hom s 1
Lineage: Source: Animalia Chordata
Order: Primates
Species: Homo sapiens(Human autoallergen)
Biochemical name: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen SART-1
MW(SDS-PAGE): kDa
Allergenicity: Detection of circulating Hom s 1-IgE complexes in sera of 2 atopic dermatitis patients. IgE binding to natural and recombinant Hom s 1 on immunoblot.
Allergenicity reference:
Route of allergen exposure: Unknown
Date Created:
Last Updated:
Submitter Info:
Name:
Institution:
City:
Email:
Submission Date:

Table of IsoAllergens Click +/- for additional information

Isoallergen and variants GenBank Nucleotide GenBank Protein UniProt PDB
Hom s AB BAA O

Allergen Details:

Allergen name: Mala s 9
Lineage: Source: Fungi Basidiomycota
Order: Malasseziales
Species: Malassezia sympodialis(Skin fungus)
MW(SDS-PAGE): kDa
Allergenicity: Of 25 Malassezia RAST positive atopic dermatitis patients 36% were positive to rMala s 9 by RAST, and 24% were positive by immunoblotting.

PMID 23 of 97 (24%) atopic eczema patients had positive SPT results to rMala s 9.

Allergenicity reference:
Route of allergen exposure: Contact
Date Created:
Last Updated:
Submitter Info:
Name:
Institution:
City:
Email:
Submission Date:

Table of IsoAllergens Click +/- for additional information

Isoallergen and variants GenBank Nucleotide GenBank Protein UniProt PDB
Mala s AJ CAA O

S.

aureus: the bacterial culprit that drives atopic dermatitis (National Eczema Association)

The relationship between atopic dermatitis and Staphylococcus aureus is longstanding and complicated. A Dutch company is investing in a new technology that targets staph to assist reduce disease severity.

Approximately 1, species of bacteria live on the surface of the skin, but available data suggests one plays an outsized role in atopic dermatitis (AD):Staphylococcus aureus(staph).

A Polish research team recently published a review article in the February issue of Advances in Dermatology and Allergology that evaluated the findings of a large number of studies on the complicated relationship between staph and AD.

When cultured during an eczema flare, staph overgrowth is seen in the inflamed skin of 90% of eczema patients.

What has been unclear is whether the bacterium actually causes an AD flare or simply takes advantage of the favorable environment — the dry, cracked skin that is the hallmark of eczema — to set up store and cause trouble.

The researchers lean toward the previous view based on evidence gathered during their review of the literature.

First, staph tends to crowd out the friendly bacterial species, called commensals, that provide the balance and diversity necessary to a healthy microbiome.

What is an atopic allergy

The researchers see staph as a likely suspect in causing the unstable skin microbiome that is characteristic of AD.

Second, staph creates every kinds of problematic byproducts that interfere with the immune system’s ability to mount a normal response — another hallmark of AD.

Among these by-products is biofilm, a slimy matrix in which bacteria can hide, thrive and evade attack by immune cells that would normally be capable to clear the infection. The chronic skin damage seen in AD offers a perfect setting for biofilm formation, the researchers said.

Staph also secretes enzymes that assist allergens penetrate the skin and superantigens that provoke an unusually large inflammatory response.

Despite the potential for staph to exert these negative effects, the co-authors warned against antibiotics as a routine treatment for AD, primarily because of concerns around antibiotic resistance, but also because of the chronic nature of AD.

Keeping an AD patient on antibiotics over endless periods of time is inappropriate and ultimately harmful, they wrote.

With the shortage of effective antimicrobial treatments and the rise of resistant strains of staph — among other virulent species — the search is on for alternatives to antibiotics.

Enter endolysin technology.

While antibiotics work by interfering with essential bacterial structures and processes or thwarting their ability to reproduce, the endolysin approach relies on viruses to do the job.

Endolysins are enzymes produced by viruses, called bacteriophages, that infect bacteria.

What is an atopic allergy

These viruses latch on to the bacterium’s cell wall and inject their DNA inside it. That’s how the viruses reproduce.

To assist new bacteriophages emerge, the endolytic enzyme breaks the bacterial cell wall open and kills the bacterium in the process.

A Dutch company (Micreos) has been investing in this new technology, recently launching its over-the-counter topical eczema product, Gladskin.

The product’s key ingredient is Staphefekt, the company’s version of an endolytic enzyme, which specifically targets staph.

Gladskin also aims to restore the balance of the skin microbiome and ease the symptoms of eczema across the spectrum of disease severity.

Because of its unique mechanism of action, bacterial resistance should not be a problem, the manufacturer said, and researchers in the fields of immunology and microbiology consent with that claim.

Time will tell if the new technology takes hold and ultimately replaces traditional antibiotics.

What is an atopic allergy

For now, it’s a trend that’s worth watching.

A study by researchers from National Jewish Health (Denver) suggests that Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) colonization contributes to systemic allergy and corticosteroid insensitivity. Their study, recently presented at AAAAI , concluded that S aureus colonization in asthmatics with concomitant atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with increased IgE responses to environmental allergens, increased eNO, and increased inhaled corticosteroid use.

Researchers reviewed the patient research database at NJH and found patients (years ancient and under) with a concurrent diagnosis of AD and asthma who had been cultured for S aureus.

We queried for entire and allergen specific serum IgE levels, positive prick skin tests to inhalant allergens, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), asthma control test (ACT) scores, and medications prescribed.

According to the results, 82% of subjects () had positive S aureus cultures vs 18% (98) with negative cultures.

What is an atopic allergy

Patients positive for S aureus colonization had significantly higher entire serum IgE, percent posi- tive skin prick tests for aero-allergens, and higher eNO.

Asthmatics colonized with S. aureus required a higher daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids despite similar ACT scores.

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<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request every isoforms described in the entry.

It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href=»»>length</a> and <a href=»»>molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in diverse subsections.

What is an atopic allergy

The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href=’/help/sequences_section’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href=»»>Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href=»»>canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is finish or not.<p><a href=’/help/sequence_status’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Sequence statusi: Fragment.

Experimental Info

Feature key Position(s) DescriptionActions Graphical view Length
<p>This subsection of the ‘Sequence’ section is used for sequence fragments to indicate that the residue at the extremity of the sequence is not the actual terminal residue in the finish protein sequence.<p><a href=’/help/non_ter’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Non-terminal residuei 1

Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi

1

Sequence databases

O [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket« Hide 10 20 30 40 50
AVSASPTPSK HNLYCYAQGK DLFEFHINDT VTKDVCKSLN SGKYHNMNNE
60 70 80 90
KYCSVADYDV KWFKERCQSH PTDVKTTKWI AGTDLKIEMD PKEPYELYCF

NYYTTFGNLP DAGAKELDDD ATKKACSALK SGKYQSDPKK KSCRMDKKDI

DQFKEQCSQY QPSDRPPYGD WSAGTSLNVV LNLKKNA
Show »

21,

May 1, — v1

ADFA7A

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<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href=’/help/cross_references_section’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Protein family/group databases

Allergomei Mala s
Mala s 7

Family and domain databases

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

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MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

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<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href=’/help/entry_information_section’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier.

Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href=’/help/entry_name’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Entry namei

O_MALSM
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries.

What is an atopic allergy

Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href=’/help/accession_numbers’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Accessioni

OPrimary (citable) accession number: O
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the final sequence update and the date of the final annotation modification (‘Last modified’).

The version number for both the entry and the <a href=»»>canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href=’/help/entry_history’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Entry historyi

Integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL: May 1,
Last sequence update: May 1,
Last modified: December 11,
This is version 29 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence.

What is an atopic allergy

See finish history.

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href=’/help/entry_status’ target=’_top’>More</a></p>Entry statusi Unreviewed (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)


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