What is a latex allergy in babies

Some children are allergic to certain foods, medicines, insects and latex. When they come into contact with these things they develop symptoms, such as hives and shortness of breath. This is known as an allergic reaction. Things that cause an allergic reaction are called allergens. Take every allergic symptoms seriously because both mild and severe symptoms can lead to a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis).

Be Prepared for Anaphylaxis

Keep an Emergency Plan with You

You, your kid, and others who supervise or care for your kid need to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis and how to treat it.

Your child’s doctor will give you a written step-by-step plan on what to do in an emergency. The plan is called an allergy emergency care plan or anaphylaxis emergency action plan. To be prepared, you, your kid, and others who care for your kid need to own copies of this plan.

About Epinephrine

Epinephrine is the medicine used to treat anaphylaxis. The emergency action plan tells you when and how to give epinephrine. You cannot rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis.

Know How to Use Epinephrine

Learn how to give your kid epinephrine.

Epinephrine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector. When you press it against your child’s outer thigh, it injects a single dose of medicine. Your child’s health care team will show you how to use it. You, in turn, can teach people who spend time with your kid how to use it.

Always own two epinephrine auto-injectors near your kid. Do not store epinephrine in your car or other places where it will get too boiling or too freezing. Discard if the liquid is not clear, and replace it when it expires.

Common Causes of Anaphylaxis

Foods.

The most common food allergies are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish.

What is a latex allergy in babies

The most common food allergies in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat.

Insect stings from bees, wasps, yellow jackets and fire ants.

Latex found in things such as balloons, rubber bands, hospital gloves.

Medicines, especially penicillin, sulfa drugs, insulin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

After Anaphylaxis

  1. Sometimes, a reaction is followed by a second, more severe, reaction known as a biphasic reaction.

    This second reaction can happen within 4 to 8 hours of the first reaction or even later. That’s why people should be watched in the emergency room for several hours after anaphylaxis.

  2. Make a follow up appointment or an appointment with an allergy specialist to further diagnose and treat the allergy.

Be Aware of Symptoms of Anaphylaxis

The symptoms of anaphylaxis may happen shortly after having contact with an allergen and can get worse quickly. You can’t predict how your kid will react to a certain allergen from one time to the next.

Both the types of symptoms and how serious they are can change.

What is a latex allergy in babies

So, it’s significant for you to be prepared for every allergic reactions, especially anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis must be treated correct away to provide the best chance for improvement and prevent serious, potentially life-threatening complications.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis generally involve more than one part of the body such as the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, gut, and brain. Some symptoms include:

  1. Dizziness and/or fainting
  2. Feeling love something terrible is about to happen
  3. Follow the steps in your child’s emergency care plan to give your kid epinephrine correct away. This can save your child’s life.
  4. After giving epinephrine, always call or a local ambulance service.

    Tell them that your kid is having a serious allergic reaction and may need more epinephrine.

  5. Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing (whistling sound during breathing)
  6. Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  7. Stomach pain, vomiting or diarrhea
  8. Skin rashes and itching and hives
  9. Your kid needs to be taken to a hospital by ambulance. Medical staff will watch your kid closely for further reactions and treat him or her if needed.

Your child’s doctor will give you a finish list of symptoms.

Take Steps to Avoid Anaphylaxis

The best way to avoid anaphylaxis is for your kid to stay away from allergens. Teach your kid about his or her allergy in an age-appropriate way. Teach your kid to tell an adult about a reaction, how to avoid allergens and how and when to use an epinephrine auto-injector. Here are some first steps you can take for each type of allergy:

Food.

Learn how to read food labels and avoid cross-contact. Read the label every time you purchase a product, even if you’ve used it before. Ingredients in any given product may change.

Insect allergies. Wear closed-toe shoes and insect repellent when outdoors. Avoid loose-fitting clothing that can trap an insect between the clothing and the skin.

Medicine allergies. Tell your doctor about medicines your kid is allergic to.

What is a latex allergy in babies

Know both the generic and brand names of the medicines.

Latex allergies. Tell your doctors, dentists and other health care providers about your child’s latex allergy. Enquire them to put a note in your child’s medical chart about your child’s allergy. Also remind them of the allergy before any medical procedure or test.

For every allergies:  Educate family, friends, the school and others who will be with your kid about your child’s allergies.

They can assist your kid avoid allergens and help if anaphylaxis occurs.

Reviewed by medical advisors June

Know How to Treat Anaphylaxis

  • Follow the steps in your child’s emergency care plan to give your kid epinephrine correct away. This can save your child’s life.
  • After giving epinephrine, always call or a local ambulance service. Tell them that your kid is having a serious allergic reaction and may need more epinephrine.
  • Your kid needs to be taken to a hospital by ambulance. Medical staff will watch your kid closely for further reactions and treat him or her if needed.

Treatment and Testing for Asthma, Allergies and Immune Deficiencies


SLUCare pediatric allergists and immunologists treat infants, children, adolescents and young adults, and act out comprehensive testing for asthma, allergies, immune deficiencies and rheumatologic disorders.

As an academic medical practice, we also conduct cutting-edge clinical research into the mechanisms underlying asthma, allergies and immunodeficiency. We are a major middle in an NIH-sponsored primary immunodeficiency disease treatment consortium headed by Dr.

Morton Cowan at the University of California, San Francisco.

Additionally, we are the only pediatric referral program for immune deficiencies in Missouri.

What is a latex allergy in babies

Our immunodeficiency program at SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospitalis a referral middle for the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JFM) and Immunodeficiency Foundation (IDF).

Treatment and Testing for Asthma, Allergies and Immune Deficiencies


SLUCare pediatric allergists and immunologists treat infants, children, adolescents and young adults, and act out comprehensive testing for asthma, allergies, immune deficiencies and rheumatologic disorders.

As an academic medical practice, we also conduct cutting-edge clinical research into the mechanisms underlying asthma, allergies and immunodeficiency.

We are a major middle in an NIH-sponsored primary immunodeficiency disease treatment consortium headed by Dr. Morton Cowan at the University of California, San Francisco.

Additionally, we are the only pediatric referral program for immune deficiencies in Missouri. Our immunodeficiency program at SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospitalis a referral middle for the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JFM) and Immunodeficiency Foundation (IDF).


Reference ValuesDescribes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results.

What is a latex allergy in babies

May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference worth field will state this.

TOTAL

Males: %

Females

<50 years: %

> or =50 years: %

FREE

Males: %

Females

<50 years: %

> or =50 years: %

Normal, full-term newborn infants or healthy premature infants may own decreased levels of entire protein S (%); but because of low levels of C4b-binding protein, free protein S may be normal or near the normal adult level (> or =50%).

Entire protein S reaches adult levels by 90 to days postnatal.


InterpretationProvides information to help in interpretation of the test results

Protein S values vary widely in the normal population and are age- and sex-dependent.

Types of Heterozygous Protein S Deficiency


Type

Protein S Antigen Free

Protein S Antigen Total

Protein S Activity

I

Low

Low

Low

II

Normal

Normal

Low

III

Low

Normal

Low

Protein S and C4bBP are coordinately regulated, and an increased entire protein S antigen and low free protein S antigen most commonly reflect acute or chronic inflammation or illness with an associated increase in plasma C4bBP.

For patients in whom hereditary protein S deficiency is strongly suspected and the free plasma protein S antigen level is normal, consideration should be given to testing of free protein S activity, S_FX / Protein S Activity, Plasma, for detecting type II protein S deficiency (which is rare).

An increased entire protein S antigen is of uncertain clinical significance because free protein S antigen levels are generally normal, in such situations.

However, the entire protein S antigen level may be helpful in distinguishing acquired versus congenital protein S deficiency. High normal or increased entire protein S antigen and reduced free protein S antigen suggests acquired protein S deficiency, as may be seen in pregnancy or inflammation. In contrast, low normal or decreased entire protein S antigen and reduced free protein S antigen suggests vitamin K deficiency or a warfarin effect, but also could reflect congenital protein S deficiency (type I or III).

Vitamin K deficiency, oral anticoagulant therapy, presence of liver disease, or disseminated intravascular coagulation/intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis (DIC/ICF) are common acquired causes of protein S deficiency, which is of uncertain significance when such conditions are present.

Concomitant assay of coagulation factor II activity may be helpful in differentiating congenital protein S deficiency from oral anticoagulation effects, but supportive data are currently suboptimal.

Differentiation of congenital and acquired protein S deficiency requires clinical correlation and may require repeated laboratory study of the patient and selected family members in some instances. DNA-based testing may be helpful, but is generally not yet available.


SLUCare Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Locations

SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children’s Hospital S. Grand Louis, MO See Map
St.

Luke’s Hospital S. Woods Mill Road, Suite South Medical BuildingChesterfield, MO See Map

For Immediate Release Contact: Jo Ann Faber at () [email protected]

Changes in Weather May Trigger Kid s Asthma

ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, Ill., September 14, Changes in humidity and temperature result in an increase in Emergency Department (ED) visits for pediatric asthma exacerbations according to a report published this month in Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, the scientific journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI).

"We found a strong relationship between temperature and humidity fluctuations with pediatric asthma exacerbations, but not barometric pressure," said Dr.

Nana A. Mireku, an allergist at Dallas Allergy Immunology private practice in Dallas, formerly at Children s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit. "To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated these correlations after controlling for levels of airborne pollutants and common aeroallergens.

"Our study is also one of the few to examine the possibility that the weather one or two days before the asthma exacerbation may be as significant as that on the day of admission, as the additional ED visits happen one to two days after the fluctuation," she said.

According to the report, patients experiencing an asthma attack often complain that weather fluctuations are a major trigger.

Dr. Mireku said, "the latest National Institutes of Health guidelines list change in weather as a possible precipitating factor for asthma, but no previous studies own really examined this potential trigger in a rigorous fashion."

The retrospective 2-year study was performed at a large urban hospital of 25, children visiting the ED for an asthma exacerbation. Data on climactic factors, pollutants and aeroallergens were collected daily. The relationship of daily or between-day changes in climactic factors and asthma ED visits was evaluated using time series analysis, controlling for seasonality, air pollution and aeroallergen exposure.

What is a latex allergy in babies

The effects of climactic factors were evaluated on the day of admission and up to five days before admission.

A 10 percent daily increase in humidity on a day or two before admission was associated with approximately one additional ED visit for asthma. Between-day changes in humidity from two to three days prior to admission were also associated with more ED visits. Daily changes in temperature on the day of or the day before admission increased ED visits, with a 10 F increase being association with additional visits.

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the lung airways that causes coughing, chest tightness, wheezing or shortness of breath.

More than 22 million Americans own asthma, including million under age

"Asthma is the most common chronic illness in childhood," said allergist Richard G.

What is a latex allergy in babies

Gower, M.D., president of ACAAI. "Allergists own endless known that weather conditions such as extremely dry, wet or windy weather can affect asthma symptoms. This study further defines the role of temperature and humidity on children s asthma and confirms the importance of working with patients to identify the source of their symptoms and develop treatment plans that assist prevent them."

Patient information on asthma and other allergic diseases is available by visiting the ACAAI Web site at

The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) is a professional medical organization headquartered in Arlington Heights, Ill., that promotes excellence in the practice of the subspecialty of allergy and immunology.

The College, comprising more than 5, allergists-immunologists and related health care professionals, fosters a culture of collaboration and congeniality in which its members work together and with others toward the common goals of patient care, education, advocacy and research.

###

Citation: Mireku N, et al. Changes in weather and the effects on pediatric asthma exacerbations. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ;

Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology is online at

Useful ForSuggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of patients with a history of thrombosis


Testing AlgorithmDelineates situations when tests are added to the initial order.

What is a latex allergy in babies

This includes reflex and additional tests.

If this test is abnormal, then entire plasma protein S antigen will be performed at an additional charge.


Clinical InformationDiscusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein present in platelets and synthesized within the liver and endothelial cells. Protein S works as part of the natural anticoagulant system by acting as a cofactor to activated protein C (APC) in the proteolytic inactivation of procoagulant factors Va and VIIIa.

In addition, protein S has direct APC-independent anticoagulant activity by inhibiting formation of the prothrombin and tenase complexes, possibly due to its high affinity for anionic phospholipid membranes. In human plasma, protein S forms a complicated with the compliment regulatory protein, C4b-binding protein (C4bBP). Of the entire plasma protein S, approximately 60% circulates bound to C4bBP while the remaining 40% circulates as "free" protein S.

Only free protein S has anticoagulant function. C4bBP is composed of 6 or 7 alpha-chains and 1 or no beta-chain (C4bBP-beta). Diverse C4bBP isoforms are present in plasma, but only C4bBP-beta binds protein S.

Congenital protein S deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder that is present in 2% to 6% of patients with venous thrombosis. Patients with protein S deficiency own an approximately fold increased risk of venous thrombosis. In addition they may also experience recurrent miscarriage, complications of pregnancy (preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, intrauterine growth restriction, and stillbirth) and possibly arterial thrombosis.

Three types of protein S deficiency own been described according to the levels of entire protein S antigen, free protein S antigen, and protein S activity in plasma. Types I and III protein S deficiency are much more common than type II (dysfunctional) protein S deficiency. Type III protein S deficiency appears to be partly due to mutations within the protein S binding region for C4bBP-beta.

Homozygous protein S deficiency is rare, but can present as neonatal purpura fulminans, reflecting severe disseminated intravascular coagulation/intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis (DIC/ICF) caused by the absence of plasma protein S.

Acquired deficiency of protein S has causes that are generally of unknown haemostatic significance (ie, uncertain thrombosis risk), and is much more common than hereditary protein S deficiency.

Acquired protein S deficiency can present through vitamin K deficiency, oral anticoagulant therapy, liver disease, DIC/ICF, thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura, pregnancy or estrogen therapy, nephritic syndrome, and sickle cell anemia. As an acute-phase reactant, plasma C4bBP levels increase with acute illness and may cause acquired free protein S deficiency.

Measurement of plasma free protein S antigen is performed as the initial testing for protein S deficiency. When the free protein S antigen level is under the age- and sex-adjusted normal range, reflexive testing will be performed for entire plasma protein S antigen.


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