What is a good formula for babies with milk allergies

ARTICLE SUMMARY
• Baby formula lacks numerous key substances for development and growth. If a key nutrient is missing or not available, the body cannot adequately achieve the task.
• Baby formula is primarily composed of sugar or lactose, dried skim milk and refined vegetable oil which can include genetically modified components. Organic formula is made of basically the same ingredients but they are not genetically modified. Soy-based formula is made of soy protein, sugar and refined oils.
• Breast milk from a well-nourished mom is composed of hundreds of substances—over one hundred fats alone.
• Baby formula contains double the quantity of protein that breast milk does, which promotes insulin resistance and adiposity.
• There own been over twenty baby formula recalls since involving ingredients, pollution with pathogens, adulteration with foreign substances love glass, lack of required nutrients, foul smells, etc.
• Rocket fuel, phthalates, melamine, and high levels of heavy metals own been found in baby formula.
• There is no FDA regulation of baby formula; proof of safety is left to the manufacturers.
• Additives to baby formula, such as iron, DHA, ARA and laboratory-made folic acid are every problematic.
• Heat damages the protein in formulas forming advanced glycation finish products as well as compromising the nutritional value.

Modern-day baby formula is the ultimate refined food, a product of science, composed of highly processed ingredients such as sugar, nonfat dried milk, vegetable oils and a list of synthetic nutrients.

But it is convenient: just open, stir with water, heat and serve. And every can be done at home, much love preparing a can of condensed soup. A dubious added bonus is that with the “science” of baby formula there is no work or worry. You don’t own to ponder about it. One size fits all.

Infant formulas may be convenient but they own a extremely dark side. Even though some pediatricians ponder commercial formula is equivalent to breast milk, they are sorely mistaken. A simple review of the medical literature emphasizes the inadequacy of baby formula in baby nutrition. Formulas are much higher in protein than breast milk, a fact which has been significantly linked to childhood obesity.

Formula is calorie-dense and increases insulin levels.

Trends in the use of baby formula over the final century own tracked an increase in allergic reactions, diabetes type 1 and type 2, and other chronic diseases among those children fed baby formula.1 Commercial formulas contain GM (genetically modified) ingredients and synthetically derived nutrients; they lack vitally necessary cholesterol but include mostly polyunsaturated fats which could include trans fats, toxic by-products as a result of heating and chemical additions, and numerous other substances not found in breast milk. “Formula-fed babies are sicker, ill more often, and are more likely to die in infancy or childhood.

Studies for a white American population show that bottle-fed infants were fourteen times more likely to be hospitalized than breast-fed infants. Compared to breastfed babies, formula-fed babies own a doubled overall baby death risk, and four-fold risk of Sudden Baby Death Syndrome (SIDS).” Bottle-fed infants and children own more frequent and more severe upper respiratory infections, wheezing, pneumonia and influenza. They own more diarrhea, more gastrointestinal infections and constipation.2

Formula-fed babies suffer more jaw misalignment and are more likely to need orthodontic work as they get older.

Lecture problems are more likely to develop because of feeble facial muscles and tongue thrust problems which develop among bottle-fed babies. Formula-fed babies tend to become mouth breathers who snore and develop sleep apnea.2

Formula-fed infants also tend to own more dental decay—so-called “baby bottle caries” when habitually put to bed with a bottle—along with periodontal disease and TMJ problems. Most infants in the U.S. today rely on baby formula for some portion of their nutrition. An estimated one million infants in the United States are fed formula from birth every year.5 Today baby formulas are made by drug companies not mothers.

Drug companies hold patents on their products and fiercely protect numerous “trade secrets.”

But unlike drugs, baby formulas are considered by law to be food, and food is considered inherently safe. There are few regulations governing baby formulas and the Food and Drug istration (FDA), the government organization responsible for overseeing baby formulas, has left the burden of proof of their safety up to the manufacturers.5

The FDA does not approve baby formulas before they can be marketed. Surprisingly no government agency is charged with this responsibility. However, every formulas marketed in the United States must meet federal nutrient requirements.

Baby formula manufacturers are required to register with the FDA and provide the agency with a notification prior to marketing a new formula or adding a new ingredient. But these were not always the rules.5

EXPERIMENTATION ON HUMAN INFANTS
In her book, Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession, now in its seventh edition, the prominent pediatrician Dr. Ruth Lawrence called baby formula “one of the largest human experiments in history.” Formulas were concocted, ingredients came and went, and there were no randomized clinical trials or experiments of any helpful before the formulas were tried on genuine live babies.

Not much has changed today. The “scientific” formula label you see today is a result of years of guesswork.6

Infant formula and breast milk are unique in comparison to almost every other foods in that they are often the sole source of nutrition in the vulnerable and rapidly growing and developing kid. “Inadequate nutrition in infancy has the potential to result in serious and irreversible adverse effects.”7 In contrast to breast milk, formulas do not change in composition in response to the infant’s ever-changing needs.6

Food is a programming system: the new science of epigenetics and nutrigenomics has taught us that food contains information that speaks to our genes, not just provides calories for energy, and what we eat programs our body with messages which ultimately lead to health or disease.

Leading neurologist Dr. David Perlmutter and functional medicine specialist Dr. Mark Hyman believe that “Every time you take a bite of food you talk to your genes. The extremely food you eat is changing your DNA correct now.”8 If this is so, what are the devitalized, spray-dried, nonfat milk, GM sugar and glucose solids in baby formula telling your baby’s genes every day? In the s breastfeeding of infants was understood to be the “gold standard” of nutrition, and a baby who was bottle-fed was regarded with pity because of the high mortality rate associated with this inferior method. But ideas were already changing: by there were twenty-seven patented brands of powdered baby formula which were added to cow’s milk, including the first marketed formula of the putative genius Justus von Liebig in Henry Nestlé’s formula, introduced in , was made of “good Swiss milk,” sugar, wheat flour, and malt.

What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

The use of these formulas was associated with a high death rate in the summer months when milk spoiled easily. Public health movements providing better care for cows improved the quality of milk, while milk clinics for infants were set up. By numerous homes had an icebox.9

PROBLEMS

Many babies fed formula developed vitamin deficiency diseases such as rickets and scurvy before doctors and manufacturers figured out that the babys diet should be supplemented with orange juice and cod liver oil.

Pundits of the day believed that boiled or sterilized milk caused scurvy and was to be avoided. But physicians showed that boiling could reduce the clumping of casein curds in the baby stomach, apparently making cow’s milk more digestible, thus justifying the practice. Cow’s milk for use in baby formula was generally boiled in Europe.9

In the early s cane sugar became scarce and expensive. Dr. William M. Mariott introduced Karo corn syrup, and it became the carbohydrate of choice for over twenty years.

The Evaporated Milk Association funded Mariott’s work and not surprisingly, in he published the first study purporting to show the superiority of that product to cow’s milk and even breast milk. Other untrustworthy researchers followed with the same fraudulent results.

In Carnation irradiated their milk, using a process Henry Steenbock patented for developing vitamin D in the product. Dried milk was also deemed an excellent source of baby nutrition.

Mothers and Medicine: A Social History of Baby Feeding, by Rima D. Apple provides a fascinating and well-documented account of the shady history of the baby formula industry.10

Although formulas containing powdered milk own been around for almost a century, they became widely used during World War II and the post-war years. In the s and s, baby formula feeding was considered the norm and breastfeeding rates plummeted.

Infant formulas in the s were fraught with problems including an excessive quantity of substances requiring excretion by the kidneys and excessive sodium in the blood serum which caused dehydration for some infants. Low iron content and high intake of iron inhibitors caused iron deficiency and increased intestinal blood loss.

Intake of fatty acids was low. The formulas lacked vitamin C so scurvy was a continuing problem, even though leading pediatricians advised the use of orange juice.11

The two types of concentrated commercially prepared liquid formulas mostly in use during the s were similar to evaporated milk formula with added vitamins (Lactum, Mead Johnston) and a product with a lower protein content with added vegetable oils and vitamins (Similac and SMA).12

By , almost every of the locally based commercial formula services had ceased to exist.

Few hospitals prepared their own formulas in-house as had formerly been the norm and most newborn nurseries used commercially prepared, ready-to-feed formulas.13

In the s, a marked resurgence in breastfeeding took put world-wide. The movement toward increased breastfeeding seemed to arise from the general public rather than from the prompting of health professionals, and may own been in part associated with negative publicity directed against the formula industry. In addition new scientific evidence illuminated the benefits of breastfeeding and sparked campaigns to promote the practice.14

Ironically, an increased use of powdered formulas after coincided with the surge in breastfeeding because pediatricians of the time advocated introducing cow’s milk at a later age and feeding formula instead to older babies.

The percentage of infants fed formulas after four months of age continued to increase. About 20 percent of six-month-old infants were formula-fed in and 50 percent were formula-fed in 10

Despite the persistent claim of formula manufacturers that sound “science” was behind the development of baby formula, the “science” was in fact not well developed at every, and much experimentation fell to trial and error. When babies became ill, didn’t develop properly, or even died from consuming a formula, the problem was isolated and the “Band-Aid” applied: the missing ingredient was added or the offending substance was removed.10

NEW STANDARDS
Manufacturers often add new ingredients to baby formulas in an attempt to mimic the composition or performance of human milk.

However, the addition of these ingredients is not without risks due to a range of complicated issues, such as bioavailability, the potential for toxicity, and the practice of feeding formula and human milk within the same feeding or on the same day.15

Shockingly, a review of the information on baby formula regulation and overview shows the FDA dragging its feet for numerous years in implementing recommendations of professional task forces Several meetings of the Food Advisory Committee on Baby Formula took put from , but the FDA took no action on any recommendations until September when the agency published the final law regarding standards for manufacturers of baby formula.

These set in put federally enforceable requirements for the safety and quality of baby formula. The requirements include current excellent manufacturing practices specifically designed for baby formula, including required testing for the harmful pathogens Salmonella, Cronobacter, and E. sakazakii. Further, manufacturers must protest that the baby formulas they produce support normal physical growth, and the formulas must be tested for nutrient content in the final product stage, before entering the market, and at the finish of the products’ shelf life.

The new rules are rudimentary, however, and in the finish “toothless” as they do not apply to formulas manufactured for infants with unusual medical conditions, special dietary needs such as galactosemia, and for babies who are born prematurely.

This oversight excludes numerous baby formula products which will not drop under this regulation, such as soy-based formulas.19

These new standards are based on the first Baby Formula Law (), which was passed after more than twenty to fifty thousand infants were exposed to a chloride-deficient soy formula and thirty children were diagnosed with hypochloremic metabolic acidosis because of chloride deficiency. These infants developed loss of appetite, failure to acquire weight, muscular weakness, vomiting, severe metabolic alkalosis and slowed growth in head circumference. Brain growth is vulnerable to chloride deficiency. In a follow-up of this group of infants four to nine years later, distinct cognitive impairments had emerged including “language disorder, problems with expression finding, visual disturbances, attention deficient disorder with repetitive behaviors, and withdrawal and over-focusing as seen in autism.”20

By law, the FDA requires that every formulas contain the following nutritional constituents: protein; fat; vitamins C, A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12; niacin; folic acid; pantothenic acid; calcium; phosphorous; magnesium; iron; zinc; manganese; copper; iodine; sodium; potassium; and chloride.21 Selenium, a trace mineral essential for brain growth and thyroid health, was belatedly added to this list in 22

THE BASE FOR Baby FORMULA
Most formulas use cow’s milk as their base ingredient, but some adjustments must be made to bring the composition closer to that of breast milk.

Human breast milk is percent fat, percent protein, and percent lactose, while cow’s milk is percent fat, percent protein and percent lactose.

Cow’s milk also has higher levels of phosphorus and calcium and lower levels of iron, zinc, niacin, and ascorbic acid than human milk.23 Formulas based on goat milk (Kabrita) and other animal milks are also commercially available, as well as a vegan formula (Coopers), along with soy milk formulas, and others.24

INFANT FORMULA INGREDIENTS
Every baby formulas, both organic and conventional, contain basically the same highly processed ingredients such as sugars, vegetable fats, processed proteins, synthetic vitamins, minerals, nucleotides, and DHA and ARA (see Table 1).

The main ingredients include:

1. Carbohydrate, in the form of lactose, corn
maltodextrin, maltodextrin(-ose), sugar;
2. Protein as non-fat milk, casein hydolysate, whey protein concentrate, soy protein isolate;
3. Fat as soy oil, coconut oil, palm olein, high oleic safflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, “other medium-chain fatty acids”;
4. Synthetic arachadonic acid (ARA) and docsahexanoic acid (DHA);
5. Synthetic vitamins A, E, D, K, B1-B3, B5, B6, C, folic acid, biotin, choline; the carotenoids lycopene, lutein;
6.

Minerals in inorganic form: potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, chloride, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium;
7. Synthetic preservatives: beta carotene and ascorbyl palmitate to prevent rancidity in the DHA and ARA oils;
8. Synthetic amino acids: taurine, L-carnitine and L-methionine (in soy formula);
9. Nucleotides: cytidine 5’-monophosphate, disodium guanosine 5’-monophosphate, disodium uridine 5’-monophosphate, adenosine 5’-monophosphate;
Probiotic or prebiotic substances as oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides (fos), polydextrose.

Other common additions are carrageenan and salt.27

The synthetic ingredients in baby formula are produced with toxic chemicals.

Lutein is a hexane extract from marigolds; lycopene is produced with toxic toluene; taurine is processed with sulfuric acid and aziridine; L-carnitine and L-methionine are discussed in depth below; nucelotides are derived from chemically treated yeast; the fatty acids ARA and DHA are present in the synthetic forms of ARASCO and DHASCO, to be discussed below.28

AMINO ACIDS AND NUCLEOTIDES
Taurine is an amino acid that is plentiful in breast milk in a free form for simple absorption. It plays an significant role in the development of the central nervous system and is credited with growth of the brain, as it is necessary for myelination.

It also protects cells in the brain and eye against toxins or oxidants. The human baby, unlike adults, cannot synthesize taurine from cysteine and methionine precursors. Even adults rely somewhat on dietary sources of taurine. Low in cow’s milk, taurine was added to baby formula in But the taurine in baby formula is produced synthetically; one processing method includes the use of sulfuric acid, a toxic and carcinogenic substance, and another technique involves aziridine, listed as a hazardous air pollutant by the Environmental Protection Agency.29

L-carnitine production involves epichlorhydrin, listed as a 2-B material (possible human carcinogen) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

For this reason it was rejected for use in organic foods by the National Organic Standards Board. The bioavailability of oral carnitine supplements is only about 14–18 percent of the istered dose. In contrast, the bioavailability of L-carnitine from food in omnivores is about 54–72 percent.30

FDA regulations on the nutrient requirements of baby formula (21 CFR (a)) do not require the addition of L-carnitine.31 L-methionine is required in soy-based baby formula to meet basic amino acid requirements. Given its incompatibility with organic principles, synthetic L-methionine is prohibited in European organic foods.

For that reason, organic soy-based baby formula does not exist in Europe. The synthetic version of L-methionine used in baby formula is produced with materials including acrolein, an EPA hazardous air pollutant, and hydrogen cyanide, described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a “systemic chemical asphyxiant” and “chemical warfare agent. . . used commercially for fumigation, electroplating, mining, chemical synthesis, and the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, dyes, and pesticides.”32

Nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids love DNA and RNA, are produced from hydrolyzed yeast.

The yeast undergoes multiple chemical changes in order to permit extraction of nucleotides, including heating to denature proteins, cell wall proteolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, and dehydration. A Chinese biotech company (Dalian Zhen-Ao Bio-Tech) and a Japanese company supply most of the baby formula nucleotides.33

FATTY ACIDS: DHA AND ARA
Martek Bioscience Corporation, a Dutch conglomerate, makes the fatty acids DHA and ARA from a strain of genetically modified algae through induced mutations with the use of radiation and harsh chemicals.

The algae are fermented in tanks containing corn syrup, ethanol and other ingredients and then immersed in a bath of hexane, a petrochemical solvent which is a known neurotoxin according to the CDC. If used in baby formulas it is micro-encapsulated, which is also prohibited in organic standards.

What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

It is also preserved with synthetic ingredients prohibited in organic standards love mannitol, modified starch, glucose syrup solids, ascorbyl palmitate, and beta carotene. DHASCO, the artifically produced DHA, is used extensively in omega-3 supplements and foods. The natural source of DHA is fish or fish liver oil.34

PROTEIN IN Baby FORMULA
The present protein concentrations in baby formula are twice as high as that in human milk. Too much protein results in the formation of high blood urea and ammonia, which must be eliminated in the urine, and a higher mineral and ash content than the baby requires.

Thus the formula-fed baby has a two-thirds higher renal solute load and higher urine specific gravity than the breastfed counterpart. The kidneys of formula-fed infants are taxed working overtime to eliminate the solutes.35

Formula feeding of human and rhesus monkey infants accelerates weight acquire in early infancy and results in increased serum concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Milk-derived BCAAs stimulate the secretion of insulin and IGF-1 growth factor. The European Childhood Obesity Trial Study Group confirmed that early high-protein feeding predicts obesity.

Fat mass is higher in formula-fed infants than in children breastfed at twelve months.35

Whey alpha-lactalbumin is the major protein in breast milk, which is significant in lactose formation, and is wealthy in tryptophan (TRP), the essential amino acid that serves as a precursor for the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin. These regulate numerous neurobehavioral effects such as appetite, satiation, mood, pain perception, and the sleep-wake cycle. Breast milk contains no beta-lactoglobulin, the dominant whey protein in cow’s milk and thus in formula.36

The infant’s daily need for TRP is relatively high compared to children ten to twelve years of age and adults.

To meet baby requirements the concentration of protein in formula must be higher than in breast milk: more than 15 grams per liter in formula versus grams in breast milk. Despite these higher added levels, studies report that the TRP levels in formula-fed infants are still low. Low levels of TRP in infancy may be related to the development of behavioral disorders love ADHD.36

Underscoring the crucial importance of adequate levels of this amino acid in baby nutrition is the fact that the metabolites of TRP are unique among amino acids.

TRP with tetrabiopterin (BH4) and dioxygen as cofactors is converted to 5- hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) which readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. 5-HTP is then converted to serotonin which is further metabolized in the pineal gland to melatonin.

The pathway of TRP that leads to B3 (niacin) formation requires B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin) and B6 (pyridoxine). Niacin is necessary to prevent pellagra.36 With unenriched whey in formula, babies are at risk of insufficient TRP for serotonin synthesis in the brain.

Excessive protein intake represents a useless metabolic load to the baby, but if the protein quantity is reduced in baby formulas more toward the standard worth of human milk, this causes a reduction in the tryptophan and taurine concentrations in the serum of formula-fed infants, even when they contain excess whey protein.

Recently, whey sources with elevated concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin own become available, which has permitted the development of formulas with increased concentrations of this protein and decreased concentrations of betalactoglobulin. Human milk is high in TRP and provides optimal conditions for the availability of serotonin, the bodys feel-good chemical.36

The U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend lowfat or skim milk for children older than two years of age. In , Mark DeBoer, associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Virginia and his colleagues fed toddlers and children between the ages of two and four one percent and skim milk, and found that children who drank milk which has a higher quantity of protein than whole fat milk, gained more weight and had a higher body mass index than those who drank whole milk or even 2 percent milk.

“Children drinking 1 percent or skim milk at both two and four years were more likely to become overweight/obese between those time points.” It was indeed the higher quantity of protein in the milk that caused the weight acquire, not fat.37

COWS MILK HYDROSYLATE FORMULA
Protein hydrosylate formulas based on casein or whey are considered hypoallergenic. They were first introduced in the s and are recommended for babies who own food allergies and colic because of supposed protein sensitivity.

Similac Alimentum, Enfamil Nutramigen, and Enfamil Pregestimil are specific brands. These formulas are more expensive than others on the market These formulas are extensively processed with heat and chemicals to break below the protein to some extent. The result is a product with “a extremely sour and bitter taste and an unpleasant sulfur smell.”49Even so, these formulas own some intact proteins, which can trigger an allergic response; percent of allergic babies cannot tolerate these formulas.49

In studies of babies using this formula compared to breastfed babies, iron status was lower, and amounts of amino acids excessive.

Infants had significantly higher serum urea nitrogen than did every other groups. Plasma threonine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, and tryptophan were significantly higher in the hydrolysate formula groups than in the breastfed group. Plasma tyrosine was significantly lower.50

Atopic dermatitis continues to be a problem in formula-fed babies and rates own been continually increasing. The FDA recently stated that “Partially hydrolyzed formulas should not be fed to infants who are allergic to milk or to infants with existing milk allergy symptoms.”51

SODIUM IN Baby FORMULA
Higher sodium concentrations in baby formulas require a greater water intake for excretion and produce increased thirst.

The increased thirst in the formula-fed baby is often interpreted as hunger by the mom and the baby is fed more formula. The baby fed artificial formula needs a greater water intake in order to excrete the increased quantity of substances produced from metabolizing baby formula. In the past, however, mothers feeding baby formula did not give additional water and baby kidneys were compromised.63 Could this early exposure to high sodium levels set the stage for hypertension in later life?

FATS IN Baby FORMULA
Favorite books on baby and baby care and scientific articles of the past sixty years own claimed that the fats necessary for brain growth are the long-chain polyunsaturated fats love DHA and that saturated fats must be avoided at every cost.

This disastrous misinformation is based on the radical change in government dietary policy promulgated by Ancel Keys, a scientist who rose to become a leading authority on heart disease, cholesterol and saturated fats in the s. His misguided recommendations were adopted and found their way into every home as researchers, dietitians, and health personnel jumped on his anti-saturated fat bandwagon.64 Babies were harmed by this restriction of saturated fats as these same dangerous theories found their way into the recipes for commercial baby formula.65

In keeping with this lowfat theme, babies also were the subjects in experimental research when pediatricians and researchers in the s and s recommended skim milk for infants beginning at four to six months of age.

The advice didn’t work out so well—for the babies. A little quantity of safflower oil and fat-soluble vitamins was then added. The infants drank huge quantities of the milk and ate a lot of cereal. They gained in length at a normal rate but had slow or no weight acquire. They also lost fat as shown in skinfold thickness because they were using stored fat to make up for the loss of fat in the diet. The researchers concluded that this diet was “likely to be seriously detrimental to the infants.”65

Saturated fats are essential for the newborn and children in periods of rapid growth.

They provide a diverse range of molecular function and actions within cells and tissues beyond providing simple energy. Fatty acids are required for membrane synthesis, modifications of proteins and carbohydrates, construction of various structural elements in cells and tissues, production of signaling compounds, and for oxidative fuel. Saturated fats are so significant that the body has a mechanism to synthesize them from acetate in the absence of sufficient dietary fat.

Feeding a lowfat diet results in membrane fragility which can disrupt cell signaling and numerous functions of the cell. This condition can be remedied by a high fat diet. The body has a control mechanism for the production of saturated fat—when they are plentiful in the diet, new synthesis is inhibited.66

In fact, cells produce a remarkable diversity of saturated fatty acids under specific conditions, and although not every of their functions are known, they are clearly not simply interchangeable.

Saturated fatty acids own been suggested as being the preferred fuel for the heart.66

Baby formula today is high in polyunsaturated oils, which can quickly become rancid. They also may contain trans fats from the deodorizing process. GM crops can be sources of the oils. Fats undergo further processing when converted to a powdered form. Consequently some baby formulas contain the preservatives ascorbyl palmitate and beta carotenes to prevent oxidation of fats.

High-oleic safflower or sunflower oil is commonly used in baby formulas. Safflower oil itself is a relatively inexpensive oil, mainly produced by Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland, and BASF (a German chemical company), but it is high in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid, which makes up about percent of the oil.

Safflower oil has been linked with the development of heart disease. But the hybridized high-oleic safflower oil contains only percent linoleic with percent as oleic acid, a monounsaturated fat (MUFA). Hybrids are not genetically modified but radiation and toxic chemicals are used to produce them. PUFAs are highly subject to rancidity and were partly hydrogenated in the past to preserve shelf life. The label on current baby formulas does not indicate whether the PUFAs in the product are hydrogenated. Because PUFAs are so prone to oxidation, increasing the MUFA would give the product a longer shelf life.68

Coconut oil is another fat used in baby formula.

It is a unique plant fat, which is high in saturated fats the baby desperately needs to grow and develop. Saturated fats love coconut oil are generally not subject to oxidation. However animal sources of saturated fats, which give a wider range of the various saturated fatty acids found abundantly in the breast milk of a well-nourished mom, are still missing from baby formula.66

Soybean oil, another common oil used in baby formula, contains 34 percent PUFA with 24 percent MUFA. Most soybean oil in the U.S. is a product of GM soy beans. It is extracted from the beans with high heat and hexane, and the deodorization process may result in trans fats in the oil.

In the past most soybean oils were partially hydrogenated to preserve their shelf life. But recently the U.S. government recognized trans fats as harmful substances, especially damaging to the heart. Soybean oil is reputed to contain omega-3 fatty acids but these fats are extremely sensitive to heat and quickly become rancid and therefore harmful.69

Another prominent fat used in formulas is palm olein, which is not the same as saturated palm oil.

It is added to provide palmitic acid at a level similar to that found in breast milk. However, palmitic acid from palm olein is chemically diverse from that in breast milk and is poorly absorbed. The fat reacts with calcium to form insoluble soaps and causes constipation.70

In randomized double-blind prospective trials palm olein has been found to hinder bone mineralization and development in infants because of reduced calcium absorption. In formulas where palm olein is used and most of the calcium is added in the form of calcium salts as in soybased and casein hydrolysate formulas, incidence of hard stools and constipation are increased.70

For numerous years, the FDA did not permit canola oil in baby formula, but today the FDA regards canola oil as GRAS (generally regarded as safe) for use in them.

What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

The multinational company, Danone, applied to the FDA in to use canola as a source of fat in baby formulas to be sold in the U.S. In a letter responding to Danone’s application, the FDA had no questions regarding the inclusion of canola oil as a source of fat in baby formulas at levels up to 31 percent of the entire fat mix. Danone claimed in its petition that canola oil has a higher alpha linoleic acid (ALA) content than soy (11 percent versus 8 percent) and less saturated fat (7 percent versus 15 percent) than soybean oil, offering a “healthier” fat profile overall.71 Canola oil is mostly produced from GM seed, is processed at high heat, extracted with the neurotoxin hexane, and contains trans fats and other rancid products.72

DHA AND ARA
DHA (decosahexanoic acid) is the central focus of advertising for baby formulas and almost every formulas contain this synthetic ingredient.

Abbott Laboratories now is using OptiGRO™, a mix of DHA, lutein and vitamin E, as their main calling card while Mead Johnston offers “choline and DHA” for its importance in “brain and eye development.”74

DHA is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in the brain making up about percent of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, 50 percent of the weight of a neurons plasma membrane is composed of DHA. About 40 percent of the retina is made of DHA. It is also extremely significant component in the skin, sperm and testicles.

It can be derived directly from human milk but amounts vary widely dependent on dietary intake. Babies cannot synthesize it from the vegetable source, alpha linoleic acid (ALA), and this reaction is slow or non-existent in humans for numerous reasons. Professionals recommend mg per day of DHA for pregnant and lactating women. The average consumption of DHA among U.S. and Canadian women is between 45 mg and mg per day while Japanese women consume the highest amounts. DHA is found primarily in fish and fish oil. Because of presumed health benefits, synthetic DHA is now added to baby formula.74

ARA (arachadonic acid) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid naturally synthesized by the body from linoleic acid.

The work of Susan Carlson and colleagues established the importance of ARA levels for growth in the baby. She also found that babies whose formula was supplemented with fish oil but not ARA had slower growth rate than those on conventional formulas and that when DHA was added to baby formula, levels of ARA decreased due to competition in the enzyme available needed to make both conversions.75

In the FDA accepted the claim made by Martek Biosciences Corp for inclusion of ARASCO and DHASCO into baby formula. ARASCO is artificially produced ARA from Mortierella alpina oil and DHASCO is produced from Crypthecodinium cohnii oil. These ingredients are extracted from algae and soil fungus with hexane—a neurotoxic, petroleum-based solvent.

The National Organic Standards Board stated that hexane-extracted algal oil and fungal oil should not be allowed in organic foods—but the USDA has failed to act, and hexane-extracted DHA and ARA remain in organic baby formula.76

When the C. cohnii and M. alpina oils first appeared in baby formula, FDA received dozens of reports from physicians and parents who noticed diarrhea, vomiting and other gastrointestinal distress in infants given formula with these oils—symptoms that disappeared when the baby was switched to the exact same formula without these novel additives.77

Three of the most prominent and respected independent scientists in the field of baby formula science stated in that the scientific evidence supporting the addition of DHA and ARA to baby formula is “recognized by most investigators and Key Opinion Leaders in the field to be weak,” and that “this field of research has been driven to an extent by enthusiasm and vested interest.”76 The World Health Organization’s Director of Nutrition for Health and Development wrote a letter in to members of the European Parliament to let them know that no solid evidence existed to confirm that adding DHA to baby formula would provide significant clinical benefits.76

PREBIOTIC SUBSTANCES
Oligosaccharides are the third largest component in human milk.

In an attempt to emulate human milk properties, formula companies add specific prebiotics such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) to some of their products to stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria. Polydextrose, made from glucose, is a common GOS. A Chinese study found that supplementation with low levels of GOS “seemed to improve stool frequency, decrease fecal pH, and stimulate intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli up to levels as found in breastfed infants.” The fructooligosaccharides (FOS) inulin and pectin hydrosylate own also been tried as prebiotics in baby formula studies.

Another possible property of prebiotics is the potential to prevent allergic response or food hypersensitivity.

A Cochrane Database Review in sure that “there is insufficient evidence to determine the role of prebiotic supplementation of baby formula for prevention of allergic disease and food reduction in eczema in infants.”78

CONTAMINANTS IN FORMULA
A study in from the U.K. found that aluminum concentrations in baby formula were too high. Researchers from Keele University in England published two articles on aluminum contamination in ready-to-drink and powdered formulas and found that some brands contain over one hundred times more aluminum than breast milk.

Aluminum was highest in products that contain an aluminum seal between the cap and the product. “Soy is a significant source of aluminum contamination in baby formula,” said the authors. Other sources of aluminum are additives such as calcium and phosphorus salts as well as the baby formula manufacturing process itself. The authors tell that “despite their publication of the aluminum content of fifteen well-known baby formula products, manufacturers own not yet addressed the problem.”81

In , two infants with kidney problems died of aluminum intoxication, and powdered formula was the source.

“Brain and bone disease caused by high levels of aluminum in the body own been seen in children with kidney disease. Bone disease has also been seen in children taking some medicines containing aluminum. In these children, the bone damage is caused by aluminum in the stomach preventing the absorption of phosphate, a chemical compound required for healthy bones.”82

The CDC has not sure whether aluminum causes birth defects in humans. In the U.S., substantial amounts of aluminum are found in drinking water. Babies get a double dose of aluminum if fed soy formula made with tap water.

Aluminum is also found in vaccines.

According to researchers, “experimental research. . . . clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants own a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In specific, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus own profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may own been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community.”83

In the first U.S.

study of urinary arsenic in babies, Dartmouth College researchers found that formula-fed infants had higher arsenic levels than breastfed infants, and that breast milk itself contained extremely low arsenic concentrations. Arsenic is found in rice products love rice syrup, rice milk and rice baby cereal, as well as in apple and grape juice.84

BISPHENOL A
The European Safety Authority (EFSA) has sure that canned commercial formulas are a significant source of the chemical bisphenol A (BPA).

Formula cans are lined with BPA. It is also part of the composition of polycarbonate baby bottles. BPA is a hormone disruptor and is linked with early puberty in girls, attention deficit disorder, ADHD and urogenital abnormalities in boys. BPA has also been found in breast milk.87

CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE
Formula-fed infants own high levels of the pathogen C. difficile in their gut bacteria. C. difficile is a bacterium whose growth is linked to use of antibiotics. The substance p-Cresol, formed via anaerobic metabolism of the essential amino acid tyrosine by bacteria such as C.

difficile, is a highly toxic carcinogen, which also causes adverse effects on the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, lungs, kidney and liver. C. difficile is a well-established causal factor in colitis and inflammatory bowel disease.88

In a recent case-control study, children with autism were found to be significantly more likely to own been formula-fed rather than breastfed. The study did not distinguish if children were fed organic or conventional formulas, but we know that non-organic soy formula is contaminated with glyphosate, and this could be a contributing factor to the incidence of both autism and C.

difficile overgrowth.88 According to Dr. David Perlmutter, children with autism own higher levels of propionic acid (PPA) in their blood which is toxic to the brain. Clostridia species produce large amounts PPA which also weakens tight junctions in the intestines allowing access to the blood stream. PPA directly alters the brain’s ability to use energy and depletes the brain of antioxidants, neurotransmitters, and omega-3 fats.89

HOMEMADE FORMULAS
Throughout human history, women who could not nurse their babies own turned to other methods of feeding infants, which included animal milk and pre-masticated foodstuffs.

Women in the countryside worked outdoors during certain times of the year, and the portable baby was taken with them as the milk source was also portable and readily available. However, when the Industrial Revolution called women to work in droves in urban factory settings, this natural, sensible arrangement was no longer possible and early weaning or feeding of alternative foods became a harsh reality.10

In the countryside breast milk substitutes were prepared with whole milk or “top milk” (cream) which made a more digestible offering.

A home recipe from contained instructions to obtain the milk both morning and evening and then let it stand for several hours to ladle off the top cream. This recipe included more unused cream, cow’s milk, limewater (a calcium supplement), brown sugar and boiled water.90

From the s or early s, most home-made formulas fed to infants in the United States were prepared with evaporated milk. A typical evaporated milk formula, from around , included one can (13 fl oz) evaporated milk, 19 fl oz water, and 1 oz corn syrup (Karo) or sucrose.

If cow’s milk was used it was pasteurized and homogenized. Bottles and nipples were thoroughly sterilized.91

RAW MILK AND Baby FEEDING
In the s and s Dr.

What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

Weston Price documented his use of raw milk to improve the diets of sickly children during the Grand Depression years and showed it was indeed safe, wholesome and healthy. Dr. Francis Pottenger, Jr. showed the benefits of raw milk in his research with cats. His cats receiving raw milk flourished while those receiving heated milk suffered from underdeveloped chests; were infected with ticks, fleas and lice; and had irregular crowded teeth with protruding faces and narrower and smaller skulls. Cat mothers fed heated milk experienced hard deliveries.

The resulting offspring were sterile. Dr. Pottenger also was concerned with differences in the development of the jaw and facial muscles between formula-fed and breastfed infants.92

In May Coronet magazine published “Raw Milk Can Kill,” a seemingly factual article about a town called Crossroads, USA where numerous died from undulant fever contracted from consuming raw milk. The article was entirely fabricated—there was no town called Crossroads—but generated a furor aimed at pasteurizing every milk. To add fuel to the fire, in August , The Readers Digest reprinted the tale. This carefully planned campaign played a role in the mandatory pasteurization laws instituted in , soon after these articles were published.93

RAW MILK FORMULAS
Despite this deliberately planned scandal over the purported dangers of raw milk, Adele Davis, the most favorite nutritionist of the ss, advocated “certified raw milk” as the best milk to use in formulas for babies who couldn’t nurse.

In her bestselling book, Let’s Lift Healthy Children, she published several baby formulas using raw milk. Mrs. Davis also recommended supplementary cod liver oil drops.94

She disdained commercial formulas and referred to children who were fed these formulas as “fatties in training,” remarking on the tendency of formula-fed babies to be overweight, a condition which she said could persist into adulthood. Apparently she was correct as current research strongly implicates commercial formulas in the risk of obesity and diabetes.94

During her career as a dietitian, Mrs.

Davis worked in public schools and for obstetricians. She appeared on numerous major TV programs, on the lecture circuit, and as lecturer at numerous college campuses. She supported free lecture on food safety and food freedoms. In Time magazine called her “the high priestess of a new nutrition religion” and “the Oracle.” Her books sold over one million copies. Adele was a grand admirer of Dr. Pottenger and Dr. Price, discussed their work in detail, and praised them lavishly in her book on kid care.95

Around Dr. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon Morell of the Weston A. Price Foundation developed a raw milk formula for babies using unused cow’s milk or goat’s milk, and a liver-based formula for those babies who could not tolerate animal milks.96 These formulas are still extremely much in use today and a boon to parents who are sure not to feed their babies commercial formula.

They are promoted and supported by favorite health pundit Dr. Joseph Mercola.97

A full description of the three formulas can be found in The Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby and Kid Care, and in Nourishing Traditions. Sarah Pope, the Healthy Home Economist, presents a comprehensive video on preparation of these formulas on the WAPF website () and on YouTube.98

WHATS MISSING IN Baby FORMULA?
In contrast to formula where every drop is identical, breast milk from a well-nourished mom is an intricate and ever-changing composition of ingredients prepared by the mom herself for her developing infant: customized nutrition at its best.

Scientists own not yet discovered every the numerous substances in breast milk—they own barely scratched the surface. Breast milk is not just food but “represents a most sophisticated signaling system of mammalian evolution promoting a regulatory network for species-specific, postnatal growth and metabolic programming.” Scientists studying the “message” in mother’s milk see it as nothing less than a program for life.99

Research indicates that “specific micro-constituents of milk, alone and in concert, contribute to neurobiological, cognitive, somatic, metabolic, and immune development in infants among mothers within species.”

Drs.

Katie Hinde and J. Bruce German, known for their work in decoding the constituents in mammalian breast milk, in their article called human milk “the Rosetta Rock of food and nourishment…reflecting…the most elegant and compelling example…of million years of symbiotic co-evolution between producer and consumer.”

The authors underscore one of numerous ways in which human milk is unique: “Human milk includes highly selective oligosaccharides that support the growth of only a extremely unique group of intestinal bacteria (Bifidobacterium longum v. infantis) that co-evolved with mammals” which guide “the development and phenotype of a bacterial ecosystem” which aids “infant digestive, metabolic, and immunological functions.” These oligosaccharides are not digested by the baby or by simple bacteria but are the primary food source for B.

longum, which are critical for health and nutrition as they modulate immune responses in the intestine and participate in the bioconversion of digested nutrients. They also serve as competitive inhibitors of the establishment of pathogenic bacteria implicated in chronic baby diarrhea, a leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide.

Lactoferrin and lysozyme are unique immune constituents with anti-bacterial properties that are found in higher concentrations in human milk than in cow’s milk, which indicates that these substances are highly significant for the baby.

In an attempt to replicate these immune components, Chinese researchers inserted human DNA into transgenic cloned cows which produced human-type lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk. The implications of such genetic grotesqueries are unknown.

Food preferences can be learned through breast milk and appetite is formed, in part, through the foods consumed during early development. When mothers eat garlic, for example, infants drink more breast milk.

Dr. Hinde and Dr. German are convinced that “The period of breastfeeding, by shaping healthy food preferences and healthy growth trajectories, is a potentially critical period for combating future obesity and dealing with our changing environments.

Lifestyle modifications in adulthood, once neurobiological and metabolic pathways are well-established, are likely to own a much smaller and more transient effect on phenotype.” If this is so, appetite and food preferences of the formula-fed baby will be based on products of conventional agriculture such as sugar, vegetable oils, damaged proteins, GMOs and synthetic ingredients, and linked to the development of inflammation, obesity, chronic disease and premature death.

LACTOSE
Lactose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose, is the main carbohydrate in breast milk and unique to the mammary gland.

The quantity of lactose in human milk is independent of the mother’s consumption of lactose and seems to be fixed. Bovine milk has a much lower quantity of lactose and to approximate breast milk, it must be added to formula, although some formulas use maltodextrin, (made from rice, corn, potatoes, sugar or glucose syrup solids) instead of lactose. Lactose is a natural component of whey.

Lactose plays a major role in milk synthesis and draws water into the milk, forming a liquid.

It is needed to absorb calcium and up-regulates innate immunity, leading to protection of the baby’s gut against pathogens.

FATS
Fats are the main source of energy and carriers of fat-soluble vitamins which provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In human milk and most formulas, 50 percent of calories are supplied by fats, most of which is in the form of triglycerides of saturated and unsaturated origin. While two hundred fatty acids own been identified in human milk lipids, with fifty metabolically athletic, the major fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic with medium-chain fatty acids also present.

Palmitic acid, the major saturated fat in breast milk, makes up percent of fatty acids.

The fatty acid composition of human milk fat varies with the mothers diet, particularly the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 (alphalinolenic acid and DHA) fatty acids. It also varies widely within and among diverse populations. Levels of linoleic acid own increased over the final century in step with the increase in omegarich processed vegetable oils in the diet.

Lactating women who are on high-carbohydrate, lowfat diets, women who are malnourished, and those with infections or metabolic disorders may see a decrease in their milk fat levels.

In addition to DHA and ARA, breast milk contains the other long-chain fatty acid eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), which is found at almost the same levels as ARA “thus giving some legitimacy to the notion that big-brained mammals need it.” Both dietary DHA and EPA reduce plasma ARA acid concentrations.

Formula manufacturers own chosen not to add EPA to baby formula.

In Du Pont developed “a clean and sustainable source of EPA” through fermentation using metabolically engineered (that is, genetically engineered) strains of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica , sold as New Harvest EPA oil in GM Nutrition stores. The New Harvest website is no longer athletic and the project seems to be abandoned as a supplement but we may see this genetically modified EPA product sooner than later.

In the FDA had no problem with DuPont’s petition for GRAS status for the GM yeast in producing EPA for use in a wide variety of foods, even chewing gum, but thankfully not yet baby formula.

CHOLESTEROL: ESSENTIAL COMPONENT
Breastfed babies get large amounts of cholesterol from the milk of well-fed mothers, which ensures healthy brain growth. Cholesterol requirements for growth alone are mg/day, excluding requirements for the brain, nervous system, and skin. This component is fairly low or missing in formulas and formula-fed babies, especially those fed soy formula, and these infants must make their own cholesterol for use in brain and body.

In a study by Dr.

Charles Wong, breastfed babies receiving higher intakes of cholesterol through breast milk had a fold lower cholesterol turnover; that is, their bodies made less cholesterol than babies on cow-based and soybased formulas. Those babies fed soy formula had the highest cholesterol synthesis as they were not receiving it in their formula so their bodies up-regulated the process to supply it. Dr. Wong concluded that children and adults who were breastfed milk from a well-nourished mom may not own to make as much cholesterol as those children and adults who were missing it in early life.

Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is required for growth, replication and maintenance.

The central nervous system (CNS) contains 23 percent of the entire body cholesterol. Two cholesterol pools exist in the brain: 70 percent is found in the myelin sheath, and 30 percent in the neurons and glial cells.This sterol is significant for brain function in numerous ways: it forms nerve synapses; enables neurotransmitter, opioid and receptor signaling; helps the transport of amino acids; and performs numerous other tasks. Cholesterol also plays an significant role in the dopamine transporter (DAT) function, an significant regulatory component in maintaining dopamine homeostasis in the brain, which is the primary target for drugs love Ritalin (methylphenidate), prescribed for ADHD.

Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain in charge of the reward mechanism and numerous other essential functions. Low levels of cholesterol in nerve cell membrane directly result in a decrease in the number of serotonin receptors, resulting in an overall reduction of serotonergic transmission in the brain. Cholesterol is also the activator for the oxytocin receptor in the brain and in the absence of cholesterol, this receptor inactivates. Lack of oxytocin in autistic children is involved with their inability to recognize voices, faces, and other visual cues.

Numerous autistic children on the spectrum own low cholesterol levels. Oxytocin is also responsible for the “let down” response for the milk to start flowing from the breast and for the new mother’s attachment to her baby.

Is this lack of cholesterol in baby formula tied to compromised brain development and behavioral problems in childhood? When babies own to make cholesterol at such a young age, can they produce enough to adequately support brain function and does this process program the baby for higher cholesterol levels in adulthood?

HUMAN MILK LIPASE
Lipases are enzymes needed for the breakdown and digestion of fats.

In newborns pancreatic lipase is not fully developed but a lipase specific to breast milk is available to the breastfed baby. Bile salt–dependent lipase (BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), is an enzyme of the mammary gland which can completely hydrolyze triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and lipid–soluble vitamins and release endless chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which makes BSDL highly desirable for neonatal digestion.

Breastfed infants absorb fat better than formula-fed infants due to the presence of BSDL in human milk, which is not present in formulas made from soy or processed cows milk. Studies show that the BSDL remains athletic in the infants gastrointestinal tract and therefore contributes significantly to fat digestion and digestion of vitamin A (retinol esters).

The lipase activity is lost on pasteurization and fat absorption from the milk is reduced by as much as one-third in preterm infants. When preterm infants were fed their mothers’ milk they gained significantly more in length and weight than when fed pasteurized milk.

THE RISE OF FORMULA FEEDING
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the ancient and honorable tradition of the wet nurse was the preferred alternative when an infant’s mom was unable to provide milk for her kid.

With time, however, a campaign was launched to discredit wet nursing in general. The single status of some of these mothers offended the moral code of influential social groups. Rumors circulated that the women were of low morals and carried venereal diseases. Besides, most modern families did not own the means or the inclination to own a strange lady move into their homes. Gradually, by persuasive advertising and other clever tactics, the formula industry got the attention of mothers everywhere.10

The formula manufacturers’ main slogan in those days was that their formulas were “scientific” and thereby certain to contain every the ingredients that the baby needed to grow and be healthy.

At that time baby mortality was high and breast milk and cow’s milk were named as culprits. Further, putative experts claimed that mother’s milk was not adequate to support the child.

Sigmund Freud theorized that infants experienced suckling as sexual pleasure. Mothers were scandalized and to head off the development of infantile incestuous desire, breastfeeding, holding, fondling and cuddling were every abandoned. Virtuous mothers instead propped their babies up in high chairs with bottles.

Physicians weren’t much interested in birth and breastfeeding until the development of the specialties of obstetrics and pediatrics at the beginning of the twentieth century.

At first, formula manufacturers sold their products directly to the public. But later pediatricians became intensely involved in artificial baby feeding, developing and selling their own formulas and writing their own prescriptions. In the s and s, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) even pressured formula manufacturers to sell their products without directions, instructing the buyer to get the directions from their doctors. If the companies did not comply, they did not get the coveted AAP “seal of approval,” which was extremely influential among the customer base of new mothers. At one point formula preparation became so complicated that it was made in the hospital pharmacy.10

Women growing up during these times were acculturated in the infallibility of the new science and technology.

They experienced medicalized pregnancies and hospital births where medical technology was on display via monitoring, measuring and assessing. Bottle feeding became part and parcel of this process. More and more women giving birth in hospitals were handed a bottle of formula when leaving with their babies. “Medical knowledge superseded and de-legitimized other sources of knowledge generated from the woman’s bodily experiences.”

Although it is certainly the ultimate convenience food for babies, breastfeeding is not an exact science. The milk comes directly from the mother’s nipple to the infant’s mouth. There is no milk level to watch gradually decreasing as there is when the baby feeds from a bottle.

Is the milk adequate? Is it nutritious enough? With breastfeeding, there was no way of knowing; with bottle feeding everything could be measured.

Even with mothers who intended to breast feed, the bottle was not far away. Fiona Dykes explains that the most common reason given by women for discontinuing breastfeeding was that breast milk was inadequate for nourishing baby exclusively, and the perception that mothers had “insufficient milk” because “baby seemed hungry.” Indeed physicians had contributed to this thinking by advising mothers to give babies a bottle occasionally and to wean their babies early to the bottle.

In addition, lactation failure was a growing phenomenon in the U.S.

starting at the beginning of the final century when women claimed that they had no milk. Journalists declared an “epidemic of lactation failure,” which dovetailed nicely with the growing success of artificial baby formula available on the market.

About five percent of women cannot produce sufficient milk because of medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or inadequate development of breast tissue, exposure to toxins at a critical period of development, medications, low prolactin levels and other reasons.

Mothers cite lack of interest and support by those on the front lines—medical personnel, midwives, home visitors and lactation consultants—as reasons not to continue breastfeeding early on in the process.

For mothers the ultimate measure of quality of milk and the central focus of progress of the baby has been weight acquire, and indeed this is the focus of doctor’s visits.

Weight acquire was set as a major indicator of growth because it is easier to measure. However, length is considered a better standard.

The growth of breastfed infants in affluent populations differs from that of formula-fed ones. After birth, babies normally lose a little quantity of weight: five percent for formula-fed and seven percent for breastfed, with up to a ten percent maximum in the first week of life, before starting to acquire.

Most formula-fed but not most breastfed infants own exceeded their birth weights by the age of eight days. With breastfeeding this weight loss might seem slower to catch up. Breastfed infants generally are leaner than formula-fed ones after four months of age and acquire less than formula-fed infants during the first year of life.

The physiologic reason for slower weight acquire is that breastfed infants self-regulate their energy intake at a lower level than that observed in formula-fed infants.

This lower activity may be related to the lower body temperature and metabolic rate of breastfed infants. It also may be associated with the diverse endocrine environment of breastfed as compared with formula-fed infants which could be affected by the marked differences in protein content of human milk and baby formula. However normal it may be, this weight loss is alarming for mothers who desire to see a healthy, thriving baby, especially when weight is by consensus the major measure of progress, and these mothers are easily persuaded by family or medical personnel to take up the bottle.

I discussed this topic with a sixty-year-old European mom of two adult children who had breastfed her babies over one year—no bottles.

She told me that she learned about her babies’ initial weight loss and what it meant from her mom and neighbors who naturally supplied their knowledge and shared experiences. Because of this she was not alarmed when her baby lost weight and was slow to acquire, and she continued to breastfeed without doubt or worry. But mothers today own no reference group to turn to because it is unlikely that their own mothers breastfed them.

A family member shared a tale of her disappointing breastfeeding experience in She really wanted to breastfeed and despite an adequate amount of breast milk, her baby was not thriving—at an initial doctor visit she was not gaining weight according to the growth charts.

She also had colic. Her mom told her that her milk was “no good” and that she needed to bottle-feed. This didn’t go well as she tried one formula after the other. The kid, now an adult, continues to experience gastrointestinal difficulties.

Up until , the only growth charts in use in the U.S. were based on the growth of formula-fed infants, thus ignoring the diverse growth patterns of the normal breastfed baby.

Formula-fed infants are heavier and weigh more early in life than breastfed infants. The World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards for breastfed babies came into use at that time and are now recommended for one- to two-year-olds. The WHO standards establish growth of the breastfed baby as the norm for growth and breastfeeding as the recommended standard for baby feeding.

Generations of breastfed babies and mothers trying to breastfeed were subjected to the bottle-based growth charts. Consequently doctors, not familiar with the normal weight acquire patterns of breastfed babies, evaluated an infant’s physical growth by standards set by bottle-fed infants.

Who knows how numerous mothers were distressed needlessly when their infants were misdiagnosed with failure to thrive and put on a bottle because their baby was not heavy enough compared to bottle-fed babies?

Researchers own found that ineffective feeding practices may actually cause an insufficiency of breast milk. A mother’s lack of confidence in the efficacy of the lactation process can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy whereby milk flow and transfer to the baby is undermined.

The mother may then interpret this as representing insufficient milk, making her highly likely to resort to formula, with the result that her milk volume actually diminishes.

The themes of science, insufficient milk, hungry baby and low weight acquire formed a strong basis on which the baby formula industry continues to build. Particularly potent were the messages suggesting that when breast milk was insufficient, baby formula was there to ensure optimum growth and health.

The science myth was enhanced by medical doctors who in general did not support breastfeeding.

There is a well-documented history of collusion between doctors and the infant formula industry. Formula companies openly give hundreds of thousands of dollars to medical professionals. Physicians and nurses in the U.S. routinely get gifts, office supplies, meals, a year’s supply of free baby formula for themselves or a relative, and even pricey vacations from the infant-formula marketing representatives. They also supply massive amounts of free formula to hospitals. The companies sponsor medical seminars and research studies. Some major medical centers may use more than a quarter of a million dollars in “free” formula every year. What these hospitals fail to realize is that in essence they are providing free advertising for the formula companies.

In fact, some pediatric residency programs are largely underwritten by infant-formula manufacturers, an allegation verified by the National Association of Breastfeeding Advocacy and the International Lactation Consultants Association.10

This strategy works. More than 70 percent of surveyed pediatricians recently reported to the AAP that they recommend a specific brand of infant formula to their patients. Numerous medical professionals do not inform their patients of the impact these baby feeding choices may have, “due in large part to their own ignorance of the facts.” Doctors and nurses own little exposure to the recent literature or clinical practice in this area. And with successful breastfeeding, the involvement of a doctor is naturally minimal.

A recent AAP survey revealed that about 45 percent of pediatricians see formula-feeding and breastfeeding as equally acceptable methods for feeding an baby and that “nearly equal proportions of pediatricians consent and disagree as to whether formula-fed babies are just as healthy in the endless run as breastfed babies (34 percent vs.

38 percent); 27 percent are undecided.”

MATERNITY LEAVE
Maternity leave during the first several months is critical after the birth of the baby to help support breastfeeding, yet the quantity of time a working lady is allowed in the U.S. is shamefully brief compared to other countries. The U.S. is one of only three countries in the world that does not guarantee paid maternity leave. American women must take vacation or ill days to cover maternity leave.

Only 60 percent of every workers are covered by the Family and Medical Leave Act, which allows employees of companies with more than fifty employees to take an unpaid job-protected leave of up to twelve weeks, but this requires at least one year of employment (twenty-five hours or more per week).

Four states own publicly funded paid maternity leaves: California, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. California offers six weeks paid at 55 percent of salary.

New Jersey offers six weeks at two-thirds of salary and Rhode Island pays four weeks at 60 percent. Tech companies offering paid maternity leave include , , Apple, Yahoo, Instagram, Reddit and .

In contrast, Slovenia, Germany, Austria and more than one hundred seventy other countries provide generous maternity-childbirth benefits that are not available to mothers in the U.S. The family financial benefits may include both a maternity and parental allowance, assistance payments upon the birth of a kid, kid benefit or allowance payments up to age five, and a “large family” allowance payment.

Maternity leave can consist of twenty-eight to fifty days before giving birth with parental leave of four months up to two years after the birth. A midwife or nurse makes home visits at least every day after the birth for a week or more to assist with kid care and breastfeeding, and at least once a week thereafter for a period of six weeks.

OTHER SOLUTIONS
More and more women are selling their breast milk online to other mothers who can’t breastfeed. In the past year, somewhere around fifty-five thousand women sold their excess breast milk online, up from thirteen thousand in No contamination issues own been reported.

The FDA does not regulate online breast milk sales but advocates caution in purchasing milk from strangers. Four main internet sites sell breast milk, “Human Milk 4 Human Babies,” “Eats on Feets,” “Only the Breast,” and “Milk Share.”

Joseph A. Ladapo, assistant professor of medicine at New York University School of Medicine supports this form of sharing: “Some parents (including this author) go to considerable lengths to provide their infants with human breast milk because of the body of evidence supporting its health benefits.”

Breast milk donated to milk banks is not an option.

It is pasteurized and reserved for pre-term and ill babies.

CONCLUSION
The health and welfare of generations of Americans own been severely compromised through the use of baby formulas. Autism rates are rampant and rising annually. Diabetes, obesity and heart disease rates have skyrocketed. Numerous American children develop ADHD, OCD, and other behavioral “diseases” and take dangerous medications.

Some breastfeeding mothers own followed the Unhappy (Standard American Diet) advice and their children are deprived of vital nutrients necessary for growth of the brain and body. Advances in baby formula technology over the years as a result of research, new knowledge, needs of mothers and infants, and the “Band-Aid” approach own improved the quality of baby formulas but these formulas are still woefully lacking in nutrients and myriad co-factors compared to the breast milk of a well-nourished mother.

Milk Allergy in Infants

If your baby seems additional fussy, gassy, barfy, snorty or rashy you may wonder, “Can babies be allergic to breastmilk?” The answer?

No, the natural breastmilk proteins are so mild that they just don’t provoke allergies in babies. However, here’s the large BUT. Babies can be allergic to foods that you eat…tiny bits of which can sneak into your milk!

How do we know infants don’t get breastmilk allergies?

What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

In , Swedish scientists proved that even colicky babies are totally fine with their mom’s milk, however, they can be allergic to proteins that pass through the mom’s intestines into her bloodstream and then into her milk.

And, those foreign invaders can sometimes create major hassles. About 10% of colic caused by a baby food allergy—most often the common allergenic foods, love dairy, soy, citrus, eggs, nuts, etc.—or food sensitivity—like caffeine in coffee, chocolate, ice tea, cola, Chinese herbs or decongestant medicine. (Most colic has nothing to do with the intestines.

It’s actually an imbalance of too much chaos and too much silent and too little rhythmic stimulation. That’s why fussy babies can often be soothed by the 5 S’s.)


Diagnosing Breastfeeding Allergies

Within 30 minutes of a mom eating a meal, tiny bits of proteins make it every the way from her stomach to her breast…and can hang out in there for hours. As mentioned, the most common food allergies babies drop prey to are cow’s milk and soy, and much less common are eggs, nuts, citrus, wheat and shellfish. (The exact same things that cause allergies in large people.) Your doctor may recommend you go a week without consuming these foods (AKA an “elimination diet”…AKA chicken and water…ugh!) to see if the symptoms improve, which generally takes days to notice.

And then, if things do get better, your health care provider will likely own you do a food challenge, to see if the symptoms come back, which generally happens in just days.

If you own concerns about your baby possibly having allergies (from fussing to huge spit ups to stringy, red tinged mucous in the poop), make certain you discuss that with your doctor or nurse practitioner.

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Disclaimer: The information on our site is NOT medical advice for any specific person or condition.

It is only meant as general information. If you own any medical questions and concerns about your kid or yourself, please contact your health provider.

The reported prevalence of CMA varies but it is estimated that it is between % of infants in the first year of life. The treatment is the finish exclusion of cow’s milk from the infant’s diet.

CMA presents with a variety of clinical symptoms and the reactions may either be non-IgE mediated or IgE mediated. Non- IgE mediated reactions generally present as delayed, with mild to moderate symptoms.

IgE mediated reactions result in immediate and potentially severe symptoms e.g. acute angioedema or urticaria (see table ) needing further investigation.

In numerous infants the diagnosis of cow’s milk allergy has not been confirmed and the baby may remain on the specialist formula and a cow’s milk free diet for longer than necessary, which might own nutritional and social implications. CMA is confirmed in only one in three children presenting with possible symptoms, using strict, well defined elimination and open challenge criteria.

There are no validated laboratory or skin tests for the diagnosis of non-IgE CMA. The diagnosis can only be confirmed by the planned avoidance of cow’s milk and cow’s milk containing foods followed by re-introduction.


Milk Allergy Symptoms in Babies

Allergies are an overreaction of the immune system as it tries to protect us from foreign proteins. In older kids and adults, the fight between your body and tell, cat dander or pollen, takes put “up high,” causing a runny nose or sneezing. But with infants, the allergy battleground is in the intestines. Here are the most common symptoms of milk allergies in infants.

  1. Signs of abdominal pain (crying and grunting)
  2. A lot of spitting up
  3. Eczema (itchy red rash inside knees, elbows, neck) Scaly skin rash
  4. Slimy diarrhea or blood in stools
  5. Vomiting
  6. Hives
  7. Coughing or wheezing
  8. Watery eyes, runny nose or stuffy nose
  9. Swelling (especially of the lips, tongue or throat)


Content

How much milk does a baby need in a day?

Babies adjust the quantity of milk they take to meet their needs for growth and development.

Their appetite changes from day to day. Let your baby guide you when and how much he needs.

  1. On the first few days after birth, babies take only little quantity of baby formula at a time as their stomach is fairly little. They need to be fed every 2 to 3 hours as they wake up. In the following few weeks, they may take around 60 to 90 ml every 3 to 4 hours. Sometimes they may need to be fed more frequently too, so follow their feeding cues.
  2. Every baby is unique. Some babies need little frequent feedings, while some need to be fed less frequently but take more milk each time.
  3. The quantity of formula milk needed daily varies from baby to baby.

    Here is a reference for healthy babies in the first few months 5

    Age Daily consumption of formula milk
    1 month About – ml
    2 to 5 months About – ml
  4. One to two months ancient babies generally settle into their own regular feeding patterns. From the age of two to six months, some babies adjust to a regular night and day pattern.

    They sleep for 5 to 6 hours at night and consume a greater quantity when they wake up in the early morning.

  5. Babies know how much they need for their growth and body needs. Some babies may own a large appetite for a few days and eat less in the following days. If they are playful and gaining weight well, a change in appetite should not cause a concern.
  6. Do not attempt to make him finish the bottle. Babies’ appetite changes from day to day. Follow his cues and let him decide how much he needs.

5Leung, S.S.F., Lui, S.

& Davies, D.P. (). A better guideline on milk requirements for babies under 6 months. Australian Paediatric Journal, 24,

How to clean, sterilise and store feeding equipment?

All feeding equipment for breastmilk or baby formula must be washed thoroughly and sterilised. They include feeding bottles, teats, bottle covers, rings, and other accessories such as tongs and knives.

  • How to clean feeding equipment
    1. Before cleaning feeding equipment, wash your hands with soap and water.

      Clean the work surface with boiling soapy water.

    2. Wash feeding bottles, teats and tongs in warm soapy water immediately after feeding by using a clean bottle brush. Ensure that there are no remains of milk left inside. Then rinse the equipment thoroughly in running water.

    Bacteria grow at the cracks easily. Check carefully when washing bottles and teats. Discard damaged ones.

  • Sterilising the feeding equipment

    You can select from the following methods for sterilising the feeding equipment:

    • Place the lid on the pot.

      Boil the feeding equipment for 10 minutes. Then turn off the heat and leave the water to cool.

    • Using chemical sterilising solution
      1. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for sterilisation and changing the sterilising solution. For most products, change the solution every 24 hours.
      2. Sterilising by boiling
        1. Make certain the equipment can be boiled.
        2. Put the feeding equipment into the sterilising solution.

          Make certain no air bubbles are trapped inside the bottles and teats. Put a floating cover over the equipment to hold every items in the sterilising solution.

        3. Put the cleaned equipment into a large pot. Cover every items with water and make certain no air bubble is trapped.
        4. Remove the feeding equipment only when you are going to prepare a feed.
        5. If the sterilised feeding bottles and other equipment are not used straightaway, remove them with sterilised tongs and put the teats and caps back to the bottles.

          Store everything in a cleaned and covered container.

        6. Leave every items in the sterilising solution for at least 30 minutes.
        7. Keep the pot covered until the feeding equipment is needed.*
        8. Steam sterilising using electric or microwave steriliser
          1. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.
          2. Make certain that the openings of the bottles and teats face downwards in the steriliser.
          3. Boil the water

            Boil the unused tap water or distilled water. If you use electric kettle, water should be boiled until the electric supply of the kettle switches off.

          4. If the steriliser has been opened, the content requires to be sterilised again.*
          5. To prevent recontamination, it is best to remove the feeding equipment just before it is needed.
          6. Storing the sterilised feeding equipment
            1. Before removing the equipment from the steriliser, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water, and then dry them with a clean towel.

              (Please refer to the leaflet “Hand Hygiene an simple and effective way to prevent infection”.)

            2. Clean the surface for preparing the feed and wash your hands

              Clean and disinfect the surface on which you are going to make up the baby formula feed. Wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them with a clean towel or tissue paper.

    How to prepare an baby formula feed safely?

    Follow these steps:

    How to prepare an baby formula feed safely?

    Follow these steps:

    • Boil the water

      Boil the unused tap water or distilled water. If you use electric kettle, water should be boiled until the electric supply of the kettle switches off.

    • Take out the sterilised bottle

      Take a sterilised bottle and shake off the water in the bottle and the teat.

      If the bottle is removed from the sterilising solution, shake of the excess solution and rinse it with boiled water from the kettle.

      Bottled water

      1. Mineral water contains high levels of salt. It should not be used for feeding babies.
      2. Clean the surface for preparing the feed and wash your hands

        Clean and disinfect the surface on which you are going to make up the baby formula feed.

        Wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them with a clean towel or tissue paper.

      3. If bottled distilled water is used, boil it before making up baby formula feeds.
      4. Fill the feeding bottle with the correct quantity of boiling water

        Put the correct quantity of boiling water into the sterilised bottle. The water should be no cooler than 70ºC. Generally, water will remain at 70ºC or above within 30 minutes after boiling.

    Read the instructions on the package of the baby formula. Measure the quantity of water and milk powder accurately.

    Use water no less than 70°C to make up formula feeds.

    Make up a unused bottle of formula each time your baby needs a feed. These practices assist reducing the risk of infections in your baby.

    Read the instructions on the package of the baby formula. Measure the quantity of water and milk powder accurately.

    Use water no less than 70°C to make up formula feeds. Make up a unused bottle of formula each time your baby needs a feed. These practices assist reducing the risk of infections in your baby.

    • Cow’s milk-based baby formulae, often called “Stage 1 formulae”, are suitable for the healthy babies from birth.
    • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions if you use a bottle warmer.
    • The size of the teats should be appropriate for the age of the baby.
    • A formula feed should be consumed within 2 hours of rewarming.

      Throw it away if it is not consumed within that time.

    • Fill the feeding bottle with the correct quantity of boiling water

      Put the correct quantity of boiling water into the sterilised bottle. The water should be no cooler than 70ºC. Generally, water will remain at 70ºC or above within 30 minutes after boiling.

    • Condensed milk
    • Wash your hands before you feed the baby. Put the bib on her. Get yourself into a comfortable position and a seat with arm support.
    • As sterilisation needs time, parents are advised to prepare in advance sterilised feeding bottles and containers. Before going out, put the powdered baby formula in a dry container.

      Pour the water that has just been boiled into a vacuum flask and screw the cap tightly. This helps keeping the temperature of water at 70 or above for making up a formula feed.

    • The hole of the teat should be in an appropriate size that the milk will drip at a rate of about one drop per second when the bottle is tilted. If the hole is too little, the baby may get tired from sucking. If it is too large, the baby may choke on the milk because the formula comes out too fast.
    • Throw away broken or damaged bottles and teats.
    • Premature infants and infants with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to bacterial infections. Where possible, the sterile ready-to-feed liquid baby formulae should be chosen.2
    • Feed your baby when he shows early hunger cues, such as licking the lips, opening the mouth, or putting the hand into mouth.

      This helps him stay calm and swallow less air during feeding.

    • Soymilk
    • Gently shake the bottle

      Attach the teat, cap and other accessories to the bottle. Shake/swirl until the powder dissolves.

    • Soy-based formulae or goat’s milk formulae are not suitable for babies with cow’s milk allergy because these babies may also be allergic to soy or goat’s milk.
    • The nutritional compositions of baby formulae must meet the standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and satisfy, by itself, the nutritional requirements of infants during the first months of life up to the introduction of appropriate complementary feeding.1
    • Evaporated milk
    • Let your baby see the feeding bottle.

      Gently touch her lips with the teat. She will react and open her mouth, then you put the teat inside.

    • If you need to feed your baby away from home, you can select sterile ready-to-feed liquid baby formula. If you select to make up feed with powdered baby formula away from home, pay special attention to the procedures and ensure every feeding equipment are sterilised.
    • Have 1 to 2 wet nappies each day on the first two days after birth.
    • Full fat milk or low fat milk
    • Never use a microwave oven to rewarm refrigerated formula feeds.

      Microwave heats the feeds unevenly. This can scald the baby.

    • Rewarm a refrigerated feed no more than 15 minutes. Rewarm the feed by placing the bottle in a container of warm water. Make certain the water level does not touch the cap or the teat. Swirl the bottle occasionally to ensure the milk warms up evenly.
    • The milk powder and water ratio differs with diverse brands. You should not stir two or more brands of milk powder when preparing one feed.
    • Use glass bottles or plastic bottles that are bisphenol A (BPA) free.
    • Gently shake the bottle

      Attach the teat, cap and other accessories to the bottle.

      Shake/swirl until the powder dissolves.

    • After feeding or burping, hold your baby in an upright position for 10 to 20 minutes. You can either hold him or sit him on your lap.
    • Soy-based baby formulae can be used when the baby has galactosaemia or when he cannot own formulae made from cow’s milk for cultural or religious reasons.
    • The bottles are clear with simple to read marking on the side. The inner part of bottles is easily visible.
    • It is the safest to give your baby a freshly prepared feed every time. Make up a unused feed as your baby needs it. If you own to carry a pre-prepared feed along, cool the feed immediately after it is made up and refrigerate it at temperature of 4 or under.

      Shortly before you leave home, put the prepared feed in a cool bag with an ice pack for delivery. Remember the made-up formula taken out from the fridge must be consumed within two hours.

    • Replace the bottles when the markings are blur.
    • Cool the feed

      Cool the feed to an appropriate temperature by holding the bottle under running tap water or placing the bottle in a container of freezing water. Ensure the cooling water is under the cap and does not touch the teat.

    • Cool the feed

      Cool the feed to an appropriate temperature by holding the bottle under running tap water or placing the bottle in a container of freezing water.

      Ensure the cooling water is under the cap and does not touch the teat.

    • Never rewarm leftover feeds.
    • There is no specific law on how to switch baby formula brands. If your baby accepts new taste fairly easily, parents can simply switch to the new brand in one go. Alternatively, you may increase the number of feeds of the new brand gradually.
    • Have at least 3 wet nappies each day on the 3rd and 4th days.
    • Use bottles and teats which comply with the safety standards (such as the European standard EN ). Check that the bottles are bisphenol A (BPA) free.
    • Goats’milk
    • Consult your doctor if you worry your baby is allergic to cow’s milk.

      For infants who are diagnosed with cow’s milk protein allergy, doctors may prescribe special formula3, such as extensively hydrolysed formula and amino acid formula. It is significant to follow doctors’ instructions on choice of products.

    • Most of the baby formulae are made from cow’s milk that has been treated to make it suitable for babies. There are also baby formulae made from goat’s milk or soy protein.
    • The bottle sizes should be appropriate.
    • If spitting does not improve, consult your doctor.
    • On switching to another formula brand, you may notice a change in your baby’s stool.

      This is generally due to a subtle difference in composition of ingredients amongst diverse brands, and does not affect the baby’s health.

    • Feeding bottles and teats of appropriate size and material
    • General speaking, it is not common for babies to own constipation in the first six months of age. However, constipation may happen temporarily when they switch from breastmilk to baby formula or switch to a new brand of formula. Besides, babies may be constipated if the baby formula is not prepared correctly and less water is added.

      Check the instructions on the formula package. Make certain the correct quantity of water and powdered baby formula are used in making up a feed. Always put water into the feeding bottle first and then add the formula powder. If needed, you can give your baby a little quantity of water in between meals.

    • Nutritional composition of baby formulae are similar. You can make your decision according to the market supply or personal choice. If needed, you can enquire your doctor or nurse for advice. In general, switching to another brand should not affect the baby’s health.
    • From the 5th day onwards, own at least 5 to 6 heavy nappies (about weight of 3 tablespoons of water in each nappy) and the urine is transparent or pale yellow.
    • Add the correct quantity of powdered baby formula

      Measure the formula powder with the scoop provided in the package or can.

      Fill the scoop with formula powder loosely. Then level off with the straight edge of a knife.

      Measure one level scoop of formula powder each time. Add the exact quantity of powdered formula to the bottle filled with water according to the instructions on the package.

      Baby’s stools:

      1. Changes from passing meconium to yellowish stool in the first 5 days.
      2. Test the temperature

        To prevent scalding of the baby’s mouth, test the temperature of the formula feed on the inner side of your wrist before feeding.

        Repeat cooling until the feed is lukewarm.

        Choosing feeding bottles

        1. The colours of the decorations and markings on the bottles should not chip off easily and should be harmless.
        2. Hold your baby shut to you with her head and neck resting on your elbow. Babies are generally more comfortable with breathing and swallowing in this slightly upright posture.
        3. Breastfeeding is the best way of protecting the babies from developing allergy.
        4. Avoid overfeeding. Stop feeding when the baby shows cues of getting full.
        5. Texture changes from loose, pasty, to seedy gradually.
        6. Bottle brush and teat brush
        7. Make certain the teat is filled with milk when feeding.
        8. Tongs for picking up feeding bottles and teats after sterilising
        9. The shape and material of the teat generally do not make a difference in feeding.

          Latex teats are soft and flexible. Silicone teats are more durable and can stay in shape longer.

        10. They should be simple to clean.
        11. Slightly tilt the bottle to hold the teat full of milk during feeding, so that your baby does not swallow too much air.
        12. No baby formula products own been shown to own a significant effect in preventing healthy babies from developing allergy.

          What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

          If there is a family member suffering from allergy, it is best to breastfeed your baby. Enquire your doctor for advice if you consider feeding your baby baby formula.

        13. Sterilising equipment (such as a large pot, electric or microwave steam steriliser)
        14. When your baby stops or slows her sucking, partially move the teat out. If the baby still wants feeding, she will draw it in again. Take a break to burp your baby if she releases the teat. Offer the bottle again after burping. Stop feeding if she shows fullness cues.

    What should I do if the baby spits up after feeding?

    Many newborn babies spit up a little after feeding, during burping, or when lying below because their digestive tracts are immature.

    The following helps decrease these spitting episodes:

    1. Feed your baby when he shows early hunger cues, such as licking the lips, opening the mouth, or putting the hand into mouth.

      This helps him stay calm and swallow less air during feeding.

    2. Avoid overfeeding. Stop feeding when the baby shows cues of getting full.
    3. Make certain the teat is filled with milk when feeding.
    4. After feeding or burping, hold your baby in an upright position for 10 to 20 minutes. You can either hold him or sit him on your lap.
    5. If spitting does not improve, consult your doctor.

    What is baby formula?

    1. Most of the baby formulae are made from cow’s milk that has been treated to make it suitable for babies.

      What is a excellent formula for babies with milk allergies

      There are also baby formulae made from goat’s milk or soy protein.

    2. Hold your baby shut to you with her head and neck resting on your elbow. Babies are generally more comfortable with breathing and swallowing in this slightly upright posture.
    3. The nutritional compositions of baby formulae must meet the standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and satisfy, by itself, the nutritional requirements of infants during the first months of life up to the introduction of appropriate complementary feeding.1
    4. Let your baby see the feeding bottle. Gently touch her lips with the teat. She will react and open her mouth, then you put the teat inside.
    5. Wash your hands before you feed the baby.

      Put the bib on her. Get yourself into a comfortable position and a seat with arm support.

    6. Slightly tilt the bottle to hold the teat full of milk during feeding, so that your baby does not swallow too much air.
    7. When your baby stops or slows her sucking, partially move the teat out. If the baby still wants feeding, she will draw it in again. Take a break to burp your baby if she releases the teat. Offer the bottle again after burping. Stop feeding if she shows fullness cues.

    How to select feeding bottles and teats?

    Feeding the baby

    What should I do if the baby spits up after feeding?

    Many newborn babies spit up a little after feeding, during burping, or when lying below because their digestive tracts are immature.

    The following helps decrease these spitting episodes:

    1. Feed your baby when he shows early hunger cues, such as licking the lips, opening the mouth, or putting the hand into mouth.

      This helps him stay calm and swallow less air during feeding.

    2. Avoid overfeeding. Stop feeding when the baby shows cues of getting full.
    3. Make certain the teat is filled with milk when feeding.
    4. After feeding or burping, hold your baby in an upright position for 10 to 20 minutes. You can either hold him or sit him on your lap.
    5. If spitting does not improve, consult your doctor.

    What is baby formula?

    1. Most of the baby formulae are made from cow’s milk that has been treated to make it suitable for babies.

      There are also baby formulae made from goat’s milk or soy protein.

    2. Hold your baby shut to you with her head and neck resting on your elbow. Babies are generally more comfortable with breathing and swallowing in this slightly upright posture.
    3. The nutritional compositions of baby formulae must meet the standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and satisfy, by itself, the nutritional requirements of infants during the first months of life up to the introduction of appropriate complementary feeding.1
    4. Let your baby see the feeding bottle. Gently touch her lips with the teat. She will react and open her mouth, then you put the teat inside.
    5. Wash your hands before you feed the baby.

      Put the bib on her. Get yourself into a comfortable position and a seat with arm support.

    6. Slightly tilt the bottle to hold the teat full of milk during feeding, so that your baby does not swallow too much air.
    7. When your baby stops or slows her sucking, partially move the teat out. If the baby still wants feeding, she will draw it in again. Take a break to burp your baby if she releases the teat. Offer the bottle again after burping. Stop feeding if she shows fullness cues.

    How to select feeding bottles and teats?

    Feeding the baby

    • When your baby stops or slows her sucking, partially move the teat out.

      If the baby still wants feeding, she will draw it in again. Take a break to burp your baby if she releases the teat. Offer the bottle again after burping. Stop feeding if she shows fullness cues.

    • It is best to make up a unused feed each time your baby needs one, and to consume it immediately.
    • Hold your baby shut to you with her head and neck resting on your elbow. Babies are generally more comfortable with breathing and swallowing in this slightly upright posture.
    • If you own to make up a feed in advance, cool the feed immediately after it is prepared and store it in the fridge at temperature of 4 or below.
    • Wash your hands before you feed the baby.

      Put the bib on her. Get yourself into a comfortable position and a seat with arm support.

    • During feeding, avoid striking the bottle, or tickling her mouth with the teat. This makes her uncomfortable.
    • By the first to second week, your baby regains birth weight and then puts on weight steadily.
    • Burp your baby after feeding or when he takes a short break during the feed
    • Slightly tilt the bottle to hold the teat full of milk during feeding, so that your baby does not swallow too much air.
    • pushes away the feeding bottle
    • arches her back and turns head away
    • Sucks his hand or fist
    • Do not add or stir any food or medicines into the baby formula to feed your baby.
    • When hungry, your baby will own the behaviour of searching for a feed.
    • relaxes the body and sleep
    • When you are unable to feed the baby yourself, get opportunities to cuddle him and attend to him in other daily routines.

      This also helps your baby bond with you.

    • Never prop up the bottle or leave your baby alone during a feeding. This puts her at risk of choking and suffocation.
    • In the first few days after birth, it is normal for your baby to lose a bit of weight.
    • You can burp him in the following ways:
      1. Hold your baby upright on your shoulder. Gently pat or rub his back.
      2. Sit him on your lap. Support his head and chest. Gently pat or rub his back.
      3. Observe the baby breathing and her effort in sucking. Babies need a lot of effort to suck if the hole of the teat is too little. Check the teat size if needed. Consult your doctor if you own doubt.
      4. Throw away the refrigerated feeds if they are not used within 24 hours.
      5. Do not let your baby sleep with the bottle.

        This may cause tooth decay and result in poor sleeping habit.

      6. lets go the teat
      7. Licks the lips
      8. Turns his head to search with an open mouth
      9. Feeding is a time for you and your baby to bond closely. Hold your baby skin-to-skin during feeding. This makes him feel calm, safe and warm.
      10. Let your baby see the feeding bottle. Gently touch her lips with the teat. She will react and open her mouth, then you put the teat inside.
      11. Feed your baby when you notice these early hunger cues:
        1. Wakes up and moves
        2. Do not force your baby to drink every the formula.

          Throw away the left-over formula milk.

        3. Learn the fullness cues of your baby. Let her decide how much to own at each feeding. Stop feeding when your baby shows signs of being full, such as if the baby:
          1. closes the mouth
          2. Crying and fussiness are generally tardy hunger cues. Babies are “extremely hungry” by that time. However, a baby may weep for other reasons.
          3. sucking slows below or stops sucking
          4. In the first 2 months, majority of infants acquire kg or more in weight per month on average.

    Observe baby during feeding:

  • Learn the fullness cues of your baby. Let her decide how much to own at each feeding. Stop feeding when your baby shows signs of being full, such as if the baby:
    1. closes the mouth
    2. pushes away the feeding bottle
    3. sucking slows below or stops sucking
    4. arches her back and turns head away
    5. lets go the teat
    6. relaxes the body and sleep
    7. Observe the baby breathing and her effort in sucking. Babies need a lot of effort to suck if the hole of the teat is too little. Check the teat size if needed.

      Consult your doctor if you own doubt.

    Important Notes

    1. Do not add or stir any food or medicines into the baby formula to feed your baby.
    2. During feeding, avoid striking the bottle, or tickling her mouth with the teat. This makes her uncomfortable.
    3. Never prop up the bottle or leave your baby alone during a feeding. This puts her at risk of choking and suffocation.
    4. Do not force your baby to drink every the formula. Throw away the left-over formula milk.
    5. Do not let your baby sleep with the bottle. This may cause tooth decay and result in poor sleeping habit.

    How to store a prepared baby formula feed?

    1. It is best to make up a unused feed each time your baby needs one, and to consume it immediately.
    2. If you own to make up a feed in advance, cool the feed immediately after it is prepared and store it in the fridge at temperature of 4 or below.
    3. Throw away the refrigerated feeds if they are not used within 24 hours.

    How to burp the baby?

    Burp your baby after feeding to expel the air he has swallowed during feeding.

  • Burp your baby after feeding or when he takes a short break during the feed
  • You can burp him in the following ways:
    1. Hold your baby upright on your shoulder.

      Gently pat or rub his back.

    2. Sit him on your lap. Support his head and chest. Gently pat or rub his back.

    When should I feed my baby?

    Babies show hunger and fullness cues regardless of whether they are breastfed or bottle fed.

  • When hungry, your baby will own the behaviour of searching for a feed.
  • Feed your baby when you notice these early hunger cues:
    1. Wakes up and moves
    2. Turns his head to search with an open mouth
    3. Licks the lips
    4. Sucks his hand or fist
    5. Crying and fussiness are generally tardy hunger cues.

      Babies are “extremely hungry” by that time. However, a baby may weep for other reasons.

    1. Feeding is a time for you and your baby to bond closely. Hold your baby skin-to-skin during feeding. This makes him feel calm, safe and warm.
    2. When you are unable to feed the baby yourself, get opportunities to cuddle him and attend to him in other daily routines. This also helps your baby bond with you.

    Is my baby getting enough to eat?

    Your baby is well fed when he has the following signs:

    Baby’s weight:

    1. In the first few days after birth, it is normal for your baby to lose a bit of weight.
    2. By the first to second week, your baby regains birth weight and then puts on weight steadily.
    3. In the first 2 months, majority of infants acquire kg or more in weight per month on average.

    If you own any queries concerning bottle feeding, please consult your doctor or nurse.

    For more health information, please visit the Family Health Service webpage: or call the hour Information Hotline:

    Observe baby during feeding:

  • Learn the fullness cues of your baby. Let her decide how much to own at each feeding. Stop feeding when your baby shows signs of being full, such as if the baby:
    1. closes the mouth
    2. pushes away the feeding bottle
    3. sucking slows below or stops sucking
    4. arches her back and turns head away
    5. lets go the teat
    6. relaxes the body and sleep
    7. Observe the baby breathing and her effort in sucking.

      Babies need a lot of effort to suck if the hole of the teat is too little. Check the teat size if needed. Consult your doctor if you own doubt.

    Important Notes

    1. Do not add or stir any food or medicines into the baby formula to feed your baby.
    2. During feeding, avoid striking the bottle, or tickling her mouth with the teat. This makes her uncomfortable.
    3. Never prop up the bottle or leave your baby alone during a feeding. This puts her at risk of choking and suffocation.
    4. Do not force your baby to drink every the formula. Throw away the left-over formula milk.
    5. Do not let your baby sleep with the bottle.

      This may cause tooth decay and result in poor sleeping habit.

    How to store a prepared baby formula feed?

    1. It is best to make up a unused feed each time your baby needs one, and to consume it immediately.
    2. If you own to make up a feed in advance, cool the feed immediately after it is prepared and store it in the fridge at temperature of 4 or below.
    3. Throw away the refrigerated feeds if they are not used within 24 hours.

    How to burp the baby?

    Burp your baby after feeding to expel the air he has swallowed during feeding.

  • Burp your baby after feeding or when he takes a short break during the feed
  • You can burp him in the following ways:
    1. Hold your baby upright on your shoulder.

      Gently pat or rub his back.

    2. Sit him on your lap. Support his head and chest. Gently pat or rub his back.

    When should I feed my baby?

    Babies show hunger and fullness cues regardless of whether they are breastfed or bottle fed.

  • When hungry, your baby will own the behaviour of searching for a feed.
  • Feed your baby when you notice these early hunger cues:
    1. Wakes up and moves
    2. Turns his head to search with an open mouth
    3. Licks the lips
    4. Sucks his hand or fist
    5. Crying and fussiness are generally tardy hunger cues.

      Babies are “extremely hungry” by that time. However, a baby may weep for other reasons.

    1. Feeding is a time for you and your baby to bond closely. Hold your baby skin-to-skin during feeding. This makes him feel calm, safe and warm.
    2. When you are unable to feed the baby yourself, get opportunities to cuddle him and attend to him in other daily routines. This also helps your baby bond with you.

    Is my baby getting enough to eat?

    Your baby is well fed when he has the following signs:

    Baby’s weight:

    1. In the first few days after birth, it is normal for your baby to lose a bit of weight.
    2. By the first to second week, your baby regains birth weight and then puts on weight steadily.
    3. In the first 2 months, majority of infants acquire kg or more in weight per month on average.

    If you own any queries concerning bottle feeding, please consult your doctor or nurse.

    For more health information, please visit the Family Health Service webpage: or call the hour Information Hotline:


    Breastmilk is more than the baby’s natural food…

    Breastmilk is the ideal source of nutrients for baby’s growth and development. It also contains antibodies and living immune cells from the mom, enzymes, and other valuable substances that cannot be obtained from baby formula.

    These ingredients enhance the baby’s immunity and reduce the chance of being admitted to hospital because of chest infection or diarrhea. Breastmilk also helps the digestion and absorption of nutrients.

    Breastfeeding is convenient, time-saving, money-saving and environmental friendly. It enhances bonding between the mom and the baby, and makes the baby feel safe. Breastfeeding benefits mothers too.

    Breastfeeding mothers own less chance of anaemia and heavy bleeding after delivery. It burns calories and helps the uterus return to normal size, so breastfeeding mothers get back in shape more quickly. Breastfeeding also protects mothers from ovarian and breast cancer.


    Key Points for Bottle Feeding

    World Health Organization recommends that babies should be exclusively breastfed in the first six months. At about six months ancient, babies should be given nutritious solid foods and continue breastfeeding up to the age of two years or above. If parents cannot or own chosen not to breastfeed their baby, feeding the baby with baby formula is the only alternative during their first few months.

    Preparing the Baby Formula Feed

    1. Feeding bottles, teats and other equipment must be cleaned and sterilised.
    2. Put the water in the bottle before adding the powdered baby formula.

      The temperature of water must be at 70°C or above.

    3. Measure the quantity of water and powdered baby formula accurately according to the instructions on the package when making up the feed.
    4. Offer freshly prepared baby formula feeds to babies. The formula feed should be consumed within 2 hours after being prepared.

    Choosing the Baby Formula

    1. Infant formula (“Stage 1 formula”) is suitable for newborns and babies under 12 months of age.
    2. Follow-on formula (“Stage 2 formula”) is not suitable for infants under 6 months of age.

      Switching to follow-on formula is not necessary after 6 months old.

    Feeding the baby

    1. Test the milk temperature.
    2. Feed the baby according to his feeding cues. Do not force him to feed.
    3. Support the baby in a slightly upright posture and hold him during feeding.
    4. Discard any left-over milk.

    (Content revised 12/)

    Faced with an baby with CMA, the pediatrician must dictate an avoidance regimen.

    This will include a substitute; the best is – of course – breastfeeding with a mother’s diet free of milk products [1]. Breastfeeding is strongly recommended as the preferred way of baby feeding [14]. Compared to formula-fed infants, the breastfed show:

    1. Better brain development

    2. Better immunologic system development & immune responses

    3. Different growth patterns

    4. Different gut microflora

    5. Different nutritional status

    6. Fewer infections, of shorter duration.

    Despite the fact that formulae are modeled after breastmilk, the human milk composition maintains its unique characteristics.

    It contains a series of inimitable molecules with potential immune modulating activities. Examples comprise:

    1. maternal antibodies, including anti-idiotypic antibodies, capable to sustain and regulate immune cell populations through a priming of fetal and neonatal cells;

    2. hormones and growth factors, influencing the maturation of the baby gut and of the associated lymphoid tissues;

    3. cytokines (TGF-β2, IL, thymic stromal lymphopoietin) and chemokines, influencing the development of allergy and atopic diseases;

    4. PUFAs, nucleotides, glycoproteins, oligosaccharides and microRNA, capable in turn to exert immune functions.

    Probably also for these reasons breastfeeding has been shown to influence a series of outcomes, including the establishment of gut microbiota, the prevention of overweight and obesity, the development of immunoallergic parameters and the neural development.

    This final aspect is being actively investigated, and in the final few years offers us some new acquisitions that can be of interest in the general management of CMA.

    Breastfed babies display significant structural differences in the brain anatomy compared with those that received baby formula: for instance, they present a longer corpus callosum, a higher ganglyothalamic ovoid diameter [15], a higher cortical thickness in parietal lobules [16]. Probably related to these effects, breastfeeding positively influences cognitive development and general intelligence [14].

    From studies in cohorts of non-allergic infants it is known that the neural programming displays some ‘windows of plasticity’, during which environmental, nutritional, and microbiological factors may influence the brain function, generating diverse behavioral competence trajectories [17].

    Numerous animal studies own focused on the effects of nutrition on brain development demonstrating that changes in dietary nutrients can alter brain morphology as well as its biochemical functions. Before the year , however, much of the evidence from human studies was retrospective. Then epidemiological birth cohort studies indicated that folate, n-3 fatty acids, iodine and iron istered in pregnancy may influence the brain development in healthy children [18]. In specific, from the ALSPAC cohort we know that:

    1. Maternal seafood intake during pregnancy of less than  g per week is associated with increased risk of their children being in the lowest quartile for verbal intelligence quotient (IQ), compared with mothers who consumed more than  g per week [19]

    2. Low maternal seafood intake was also associated with increased risk of suboptimum outcomes for prosocial behaviour, fine motor skills, communication, and social development scores.

      For each outcome measured, the lower the intake of seafood during pregnancy, the higher the risk of suboptimum developmental outcome [19]

    3. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with negative cognitive outcomes [19, 20].

    After birth, the more implicated nutrients in the global development of infants are protein supply, PUFAs, Vitamins B12, C, A and D, iron, iodine, choline, zinc, selenium, and copper.

    Independently or in combination, their nutritional availability may influence cognitive performance behavior [21]. Other studies failed to identify positive effects of breastfeeding on early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence [22], while an improved performance in intelligence of breastfed children was found at age 30 [23]. Taken together, the recent human studies indicate that the association among breastfeeding and improved performance in intelligence tests is not casual [24].

    As a case in point, essential fatty acids frolic a central role in brain development of infants: humans can synthesize saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids but cannot synthesize the n-3 and the n-6 families of PUFA.

    The parent fatty acids of these families, alpha linolenic acid (18 carbons, three double bonds with the first double bond in the n-3 position, Cn-3, ALA) and linoleic acid (Cn-6, LA) are essential fatty acids and must be present in the diet. ALA is converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (C n-3, EPA) then to docosahexaenoic acid (Cn-3, DHA), while LA is converted to arachidonic acid (Cn-6, AA). DHA is a critical component of cell membranes, especially in the brain and retina.

    AA is both a membrane component and a precursor to potent signaling molecules, the prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The human milk always contains both AA and DHA, while in the past baby formulae had neither. Interventional studies failed to discover evidence that prenatal fish-oil (and folic acid) supplementation may influence the cognitive development of children at y of age, but a high DHA in maternal erythrocytes at delivery was associated with a Mental Processing Composite Score higher than the 50th percentile in the offspring [25]. Also, associations of maternal LC-PUFA status with kid emotional and behavioral problems were found in an epidemiologic study [26].

    Nowadays, special formulae for the treatment of CMA are not in line with these characteristics of HM (Table 1).

    Another significant component of breast milk is folic acid; its appropriate availability at the onset of pregnancy is associated with brain volume (Fig. 1). In children with low maternal folate levels, the head grows  mm per week less than in the controls [27]. This may translate in million neurons and billion synapses less per week. Low maternal folate status during early pregnancy was also found associated with a higher risk of emotional and behavioral problems in the offspring [28].

    The use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception has been associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder [29]. Human milk provides sufficient folate intake, essential for normal growth and brain development; heat treatment in the breastmilk banks may critically reduce its quantity [30].

    Breastfeeding also influences the gut microbiota. Its establishment soon after birth is conditioned by factors as the type of delivery (passage through the birth canal vs. caesarean section), socioeconomic and climatic environment (born in developed vs.

    developing countries), and immune system development during pregnancy, antibiotic treatments, and contacts with parents, siblings and hospital staff [31]. Dietary factors (breast vs. formula feeding) are of prominent importance in this context.

    The gut microbiota as a major topic of research interest in biology has increased in recent years . Studies are assessing the influence of variations in the composition of the gut microbiota on diseases, ranging from inflammation to obesity. Accumulating data now indicate that the gut microbiota also communicates with the CNS — possibly through neural, endocrine and immune pathways — and thereby influences brain function and behavior.

    Studies in germ-free animals and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic bacteria or antibiotic drugs propose a role for the gut microbiota in the regulation of anxiety, mood, cognition and pain [32]. It is now generally accepted that a stable gut microbiota is essential for normal gut physiology and contributes to appropriate signaling along the gut–brain axis and, thereby, to the healthy status of the individual, as shown on the left-hand side of Fig. 2. The right-hand side of the figure indicates how intestinal dysbiosis can adversely influence gut physiology, leading to inappropriate gut–brain axis signaling and associated consequences for CNS functions and resulting in disease states.

    Conversely, stress at the level of the CNS can affect gut function and lead to perturbations of the microbiota [33]. Thus, the emerging concept of a microbiota–gut–brain axis suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may be a tractable strategy for developing novel therapeutics for complicated CNS disorders.

    Of course, every these activities of breastfeeding are mediated through epigenetic activities of the diet, especially during prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Diets high in choline, methionine, folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 increase DNA and histone methylation altering gene expression and generating permanent changes in development [34]. Early-life nutritional exposures, therefore, can act on the development of asthma, allergy, and obesity through epigenetic mechanisms [35].

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    Considerations for feeding baby with baby formula

    If for some reason, parents cannot breastfeed or own decided not to give their baby breastmilk, they can only give him baby formula in his first few months of life.

    Parents should understand that once the baby is fed with baby formula, the mother’s breast will produce less breastmilk.

    Mother’s intention to breastfeed may be weakened too.

    Infant formula is costly. Parents may own to spend a considerable quantity of money on the baby formula in the first year (for example, a can of gram baby formula costs $ and a baby consumes 3 to 4 cans a month. That would cost the parents $9, to $12, in the first year).

    Infant formula is available in two forms: the commercially sterile ready-to-feed liquid formula and powdered baby formula. Powdered baby formula is not a sterile product. Safe preparation of formula milk and use of properly sterilised feeding equipment is essential to protect the baby from the risk of getting infection.


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