What herbs are good for food allergies

There are numerous diverse options when it comes to diagnosing food
allergies. The most commonly used tests include skin prick tests,
allergy elimination/challenge tests, and blood antibody testing.

Skin Prick Tests

Skin prick tests, while widely used by allergists to diagnose
respiratory allergies, are not an precise way to test for food allergies
except in the case of the immediate, life threatening type of reaction.
As mentioned previously, the majority of people with food allergies
do not own this type of reaction.

Allergy Elimination Diet

The elimination/challenge diet is free and highly precise, but is
the most hard to do.

It requires eliminating every potentially
allergic foods for a period of time, generally two weeks, and then challenging
oneself with these foods one at a time. For this test to be effective,
most or every allergic foods must be eliminated and the food challenges
must be spaced adequately far apart. If done properly, a person will
feel better after eliminating the allergic foods for days, and
then feel worse within days of challenging with the suspect food.

Blood Antibody Tests

Blood antibody testing, which is much better than skin prick testing
for the common delayed reaction, involves testing a sample of the
persons blood with a variety of diverse foods in the laboratory.
A report is then produced which lists the quantity of antibody found
for each of the foods tested.

The advantage of this type of test is
that or more foods are commonly tested, and the list of foods
that need to be eliminated is generally shorter and easier than with
the elimination diet.


Natural Supplements that Assist Food Allergies

Natural supplements that can be especially useful in helping to heal
food allergies include quercetin (a bioflavanoid that reduces inflammation
in the gut), glutamine (an amino acid that heals the lining of the
gut), milk thistle (an herbal medicine that protects and restores
liver function), and inulin (a vegetable fiber that promotes the growth
of excellent bacteria in the gut).

These natural products own potent anti-allergic
properties in the gut, and therefore assist to reduce allergic sensitivity
when used in conjunction with an allergy elimination diet.

While elimination and rotation diets may seem overwhelming at first,
there is a wealth of information available to assist. Most people quickly
get the hang of it, and the improvement in the way they feel makes
it every worth it.



Expert analysis: Adult food allergy vs food intolerance

Isabel Skypala PhD RD FBDA
11 June,

Food allergy in adults is generally mediated by IgE antibodies, with one or more immediate typical allergic symptoms (flushing, hives, itching, swelling, vomiting, diarrhoea, difficulty breathing) to trigger foods.1

The most common non-IgE-mediated food allergy in adults is eosinophilic oesophagitis, characterised by symptoms of reflux, dysphagia and food impaction, with eosinophilic infiltration provoking structural changes in the oesophagus.1 Food intolerance has no immune trigger.

Sufferers may experience reactions due to pharmacological effects, an enzyme deficiency or gastro-intestinal disorder such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).2 If symptoms include hives and facial swelling, but their onset is not linked to any specific food, then a differential diagnosis of spontaneous urticaria/angio-oedema may need to be considered. A robust diagnosis is significant to ensure the correct management is implemented and unnecessary food exclusion is avoided as there may be adverse nutritional consequences, especially if a major food group, such as milk, wheat or fruits/vegetables are excluded.3

IgE-mediated food allergy affects around 4% of adults, lower than in children but with a greater risk of fatal anaphylaxis.4,5 Milk, egg, wheat and soy allergy often resolves by the age of 18 years; despite this, milk and wheat are the foods most frequently suspected by adults to cause symptoms.6–8 A little number of adults can own a severe persisting milk allergy from childhood.

Adults sensitised to, but tolerant of, milk (typically those with severe eczema), who exclude it for a endless period then reintroduce it, risk developing a milk allergy due to subsequent non-recognition by the IgE antibodies.9 The most probable cause of symptoms to milk in adults is lactose intolerance although respiratory symptoms associated with milk are also frequently reported by those with asthma or other lung conditions.10,11

Wheat allergy

Wheat allergy is extremely rare, although wheat is one of the triggers of food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA).12,13 This food allergy is characterised by a lack of reaction to the trigger food unless it is consumed in large quantities or in shut proximity to a cofactor (exercise, aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol).14 Apart from wheat, other common trigger foods of FDEIA include shellfish, tomatoes, celery and nuts.15 Wheat-associated symptoms in adults are most often gastro-intestinal, thus a diagnosis of coeliac disease should first be excluded before considering other causes.16 Those suffering with IBS may be wheat intolerant due to poor digestion of the fermentable carbohydrates.17,18 Others may avoid wheat due to non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, although it has been demonstrated that less than 15% of those considered to be gluten intolerant are likely to own this condition.19,20

Peanut and tree nut allergy

Peanut and tree nut allergies generally start in childhood; peanut allergy resolves before adolescence in one third or more of sufferers, whereas only 10% of those allergic to tree nuts will experience resolution.21–25 A concomitant allergy to tree nuts is only likely in less than 40% of peanut allergic individuals, so it is significant that sensitisation and allergy to tree nuts is individually assessed, especially since severe reactions to nuts are more frequent in teenagers and adults.26,27 New onset symptoms to tree nuts or peanuts in adults is generally due to a condition known as pollen-food syndrome (PFS) or oral allergy syndrome.28 Over 60% of birch-sensitised individuals are likely to develop PFS due to specific IgE antibodies against birch pollen recognising and reacting to similar proteins in plant foods, although grass and weed pollens are also involved.29,30 Consumption of the trigger food, generally raw tree nuts, apples, kiwifruit and rock fruits (peaches, plums, cherries), causes immediate mild to moderate localised oropharyngeal symptoms.31 Another plant food allergy which mainly occurs in adult life also involves cross-reactions between allergenic proteins in plant foods called lipid transfer proteins (LTP).32 Food triggers are often similar to those reported in PFS, but due to their high resistance to heating and digestion, LTP allergens cause reactions to both raw and cooked food especially in the presence of co-factors.33–35

Fish allergy

Fish allergy generally starts in childhood, whereas shellfish allergy is a common new-onset food allergy manifesting in adult life.36,37 Reported reactions to shellfish are most often to crustaceans (shrimp, crab, lobster) rather than molluscs (mussels, scallops, clams, oyster, squid).38 The primary shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, is water soluble and heat stable, so allergic symptoms can be triggered by inhalation of cooking vapours or by the residue of prawns in cooking oils.39,40 The lack of similarity between tropomyosin and β-parvalbumin, the main allergen in fish, generally means cross-reactivity between fish and shellfish is unlikely, although this can happen possibly due to co-sensitisation to other allergenic proteins found in both.39,41–43Scombroid poisoning, caused by an excessive level of histamine due to the bacterial decarboxylation of histidine, is a common differential diagnosis for seafood allergy.39 However, there are some adults who are sensitive to much smaller amounts of natural histamine in foods.

Histamine intolerance is hard to diagnose as there are no validated tests, so dietary exclusion and reintroduction is the only option. Foods likely to contain high levels of histamine include red/brown fish (mackerel, salmon, herring, sardines, tuna), shellfish, pork products, aged meat, mature or aged cheeses, and fermented foods such as wine.44

Allergy to food additives

Additives can cause food intolerance, but the best studied of these is sodium metabisulphite, an additive used to preserve foods and prevent browning. Sodium metabisulphite use was greatly reduced in the s after numerous reported instances of severe adverse reactions, especially in those with asthma.44 Foods most often implicated include white and rose wine, sparkling wine, lager, cider, light coloured dried fruits, raw peeled potato products, light coloured fruit cordials and preserved lemon and lime juice.

Should tests to the obvious foods not reveal the cause of a severe allergic reaction in adults, and food intolerance has been ruled out, it might be that a hidden allergen is the cause of the problem. This could be an LTP allergen or an allergy linked to co-factors, but other less obvious ‘hidden’ food allergens might need to be considered. These include buckwheat, legumes (soy, lupin, chick peas flour, pea protein, lentils, fenugreek, guar gum), pectin, mycoprotein, psyllium, mustard, celery and natural food colourings such as carmine (cochineal).45

References

  • Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach.

    J Gastroenterol Hepatol ;–8.

  • Golley S et al. Motivations for avoiding wheat consumption in Australia: results from a population survey. Public Health Nutr ;–9.
  • Khan F et al. Adult seafood allergy in the Texas Medical Center: A year experience. Allergy Rhinol (Providence) ;2:e71–7.
  • Monsbakken KW, Vandvik PO, Farup PG. Perceived food intolerance in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome – aetiology, prevalence and consequences. Eur J Clin Nutr ;–
  • Skypala IJ et al. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy ;
  • Skypala IJ et al. Development and validation of a structured questionnaire for the diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis during the UK birch pollen season.

    Clin Exp Allergy ;41(7)–

  • Pascal M et al. Lipid transfer protein syndrome: clinical pattern, cofactor effect and profile of molecular sensitization to plant-foods and pollens. Clin Exp Allergy ;–
  • Ruethers T et al. Seafood allergy: A comprehensive review of fish and shellfish allergens. Mol Immunol Aug;–
  • Lomas JM, Järvinen KM. Managing nut-induced anaphylaxis: challenges and solutions. J Asthma Allergy ;–
  • Neuman-Sunshine DL et al. The natural history of persistent peanut allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ;–
  • Fleischer D et al. The natural history of tree nut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol ;–
  • Cardona V et al.

    Co-factor-enhanced food allergy. Allergy Oct;67(10)–8.

  • Christensen MJ et al. Exercise lowers threshold and increases severity, but wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis can be elicited at relax. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ;6(2)–
  • Kamdar TA et al. Prevalence and characteristics of adult-onset food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ;–
  • Bégin P et al. Natural resolution of peanut allergy: a year longitudinal follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ;–
  • Deng Y et al. Lactose intolerance in adults: Biological mechanism and dietary management. Nutrients ;–
  • Van Winkle RC, Chang C. The biochemical basis and clinical evidence of food allergy due to lipid transfer proteins: a comprehensive review.

    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ;–

  • Elli L et al. Evidence for the presence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity in patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: Results from a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled gluten challenge. Nutrients ;
  • Asero R et al. The clinical relevance of lipid transfer protein. Clin Exp Allergy ;–
  • Lehrer SB et al. Transfer of shrimp allergens to other foods through cooking oil.

    J Allergy Clin Immunol ;(S1):S

  • Deschildre A et al. Peanut-allergic patients in the MIRABEL survey: characteristics, allergists dietary advice and lessons from genuine life. Clin Exp Allergy ;–
  • Wuthrich B et al. Milk consumption does not lead to mucus production or occurrence of asthma. J Am Coll Nutr ;S–S
  • Asero R et al. Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion. Int Arch Allergy Immunol ;–
  • Gunawardana NC, Rey-Garcia H, Skypala IJ. Nutritional management of patients with pollen food syndrome: Is there a need?

    Curr Treat Options Allergy ;5(4)–

  • Turner PJ et al. Increase in anaphylaxis-related hospitalizations but no increase in fatalities: an analysis of United Kingdom national anaphylaxis data, – J Allergy Clin Immunol ;–
  • Worm M et al. Triggers and treatment of anaphylaxis: an analysis of 4, cases from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Dtsch Arztebl Int May 23;(21)–
  • van Gils T et al. Prevalence and characterization of self-reported gluten sensitivity in The Netherlands. Nutrients ;8(11).
  • Sørensen M et al. Cross-reactivity in fish allergy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled food-challenge trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol ;(4)–2.
  • Wainstein BK, Saad RA.

    Repeat oral food challenges in peanut and tree nut allergic children with a history of mild/moderate reactions. Asia Pac Allergy ;–6.

  • Kuehn A et al. Identification of enolases and aldolases as significant fish allergens in cod, salmon and tuna: component resolved diagnosis using parvalbumin and the new allergens. Clin Exp Allergy ;43(7)–
  • Peters RL et al. Natural history of peanut allergy and predictors of resolution in the first 4 years of life: A population-based assessment.

    J Allergy Clin Immunol ;–

  • Hompes S et al. Elicitors and co-factors in food-induced anaphylaxis in adults. Clin Transl Allergy ;3(1)
  • Nachshon L et al. Food allergy to previously tolerated foods: Course and patient characteristics. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ;(1)–81
  • Nwaru BI et al. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy ;–
  • Skypala IJ, McKenzie R.

    Nutritional issues in food allergy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ;May doi: /sx.

  • Lebwohl B, Sanders DS, Green PHR. Coeliac disease. Lancet Jan 6;()–
  • Boyce JA et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. J Allergy Clin Immunol ;(6 Suppl):S1–
  • Werfel T et al. Position paper of the EAACI: food allergy due to immunological cross-reactions with common inhalant allergens. Allergy ;–
  • Savage J, Sicherer S, Wood R. The natural history of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ;–
  • Skypala IJ et al.

    The prevalence of PFS and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of UK adults aged incorporating a validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire. Clin Exp Allergy ;–

  • Muraro A et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: diagnosis and management of food allergy. Allergy ;–
  • Catassi C et al. Diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS): The Salerno Experts Criteria. Nutrients ;–
  • Burney P et al. Prevalence and distribution of sensitization to foods in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a EuroPrevall analysis.

    Allergy ;–8.

  • González-Fernández J et al. Possible allergenic role of tropomyosin in patients with adverse reactions after fish intake. Immunol Invest. May;47(4)–
  • Skypala IJ. Food-induced anaphylaxis: Role of hidden allergens and cofactors. Front Immunol Apr 3;

You May Own Food Allergy/Intolerance and Dont Know It

Do you experience asthma, eczema, psoriasis, arthritis, ear infections,
sinusitis, migraine headaches, irritable bowel, inflammatory bowel
disease, anxiety, depression, fatigue, hyperactivity, obesity, or
post nasal drip? If so, you may own food allergy/intolerance.

Delayed Reactions from Allergies to Food

The reason that numerous people arent aware that they own food
allergies is because the allergic reaction can take up to two days
to happen after eating the allergic food.

This makes it extremely difficult
to associate the symptoms of an allergic reaction to a particular
food. The other difficulty is that food allergies can cause a wide
variety of symptoms (as described above) beyond just the hives or
anaphylactic shock that numerous people are aware of. While estimates
of the prevalence of food allergies varies widely, a study published
in Annals of Allergy found for example that 78% of childhood
ear infections are associated with food allergies.

What is a Food Allergy?

Food allergies are a common condition in which the immune system
reacts to certain foods in the same way that it reacts to bacteria
and viruses, namely by producing antibodies.

Food allergies can be
immediate and life threatening, as in the case of someone who eats
a strawberry and cant breathe. Or they can be delayed and much
less severe but nevertheless cause significant problems. The vast
majority of people who own food allergies, numerous of whom dont
know it, own the delayed type of reaction.

Common Food Allergens

The foods that people most commonly become allergic to are dairy,
eggs, and gluten. Other common allergens include peanuts, corn, soy,
citrus fruits, nightshade vegetables (tomato, potato, pepper, eggplant),
chocolate, yeast, beans, and nuts. The list of foods that a person
can become allergic to, however, includes everything that he or she
eats.

Ironically it is actually the foods that a person eats most
frequently that he or she is most likely to be allergic to. This is
because food allergies can lead to a type of food addiction where
eating the food can in some ways make a person feel better, while
avoiding the food can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

Underlying Conditions that Can Cause Allergies

There are a number of underlying conditions which can promote
the development of food allergies, including poor digestion, a leaky
gut which allows too numerous intact food proteins to be absorbed
into the blood stream, and chronic intestinal infections by yeast,
bacteria, or parasites.

Correcting these underlying problems is crucial
to healing the food allergies.

You May Own Food Allergy/Intolerance and Dont Know It

Do you experience asthma, eczema, psoriasis, arthritis, ear infections,
sinusitis, migraine headaches, irritable bowel, inflammatory bowel
disease, anxiety, depression, fatigue, hyperactivity, obesity, or
post nasal drip? If so, you may own food allergy/intolerance.

Delayed Reactions from Allergies to Food

The reason that numerous people arent aware that they own food
allergies is because the allergic reaction can take up to two days
to happen after eating the allergic food.

This makes it extremely difficult
to associate the symptoms of an allergic reaction to a particular
food. The other difficulty is that food allergies can cause a wide
variety of symptoms (as described above) beyond just the hives or
anaphylactic shock that numerous people are aware of. While estimates
of the prevalence of food allergies varies widely, a study published
in Annals of Allergy found for example that 78% of childhood
ear infections are associated with food allergies.

What is a Food Allergy?

Food allergies are a common condition in which the immune system
reacts to certain foods in the same way that it reacts to bacteria
and viruses, namely by producing antibodies.

Food allergies can be
immediate and life threatening, as in the case of someone who eats
a strawberry and cant breathe. Or they can be delayed and much
less severe but nevertheless cause significant problems. The vast
majority of people who own food allergies, numerous of whom dont
know it, own the delayed type of reaction.

Common Food Allergens

The foods that people most commonly become allergic to are dairy,
eggs, and gluten. Other common allergens include peanuts, corn, soy,
citrus fruits, nightshade vegetables (tomato, potato, pepper, eggplant),
chocolate, yeast, beans, and nuts.

The list of foods that a person
can become allergic to, however, includes everything that he or she
eats. Ironically it is actually the foods that a person eats most
frequently that he or she is most likely to be allergic to. This is
because food allergies can lead to a type of food addiction where
eating the food can in some ways make a person feel better, while
avoiding the food can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

Underlying Conditions that Can Cause Allergies

There are a number of underlying conditions which can promote
the development of food allergies, including poor digestion, a leaky
gut which allows too numerous intact food proteins to be absorbed
into the blood stream, and chronic intestinal infections by yeast,
bacteria, or parasites.

Correcting these underlying problems is crucial
to healing the food allergies.


Avoiding Foods that Cause Allergies

Complete Food Avoidance

Complete avoidance of the allergic foods is the most effective way
to treat food allergies. This can be extremely hard for a person who
is allergic to things such as dairy and wheat which make up a large
part of most American diets. Fortunately there are numerous hypoallergenic
alternatives now available for these foods, and numerous dairy and
wheat free cookbooks are also available.

The excellent news is that these
foods dont need to be given up forever. Most people are able
to tolerate their allergic foods on an occasional or rotation basis
after giving their immune system months to calm down.

Rotation Diets

Rotation diets are a excellent way of preventing food allergies from developing
in the first put, and are the best way to reintroduce foods for
those who own been on an elimination diet.

One of the primary reasons
that people develop food allergies is from eating the same foods day
in and day out. It is no coincidence that dairy and wheat, the most
common foods in the American diet, are also the most common food allergens.
Rotation diets solve this problem by cycling foods through the diet
every days. A person allergic to dairy, for example, could only
eat dairy once every days.


How We Can Help

To discover out if you own food allergies and what to do,
schedule an office visit
or
food allergy test.

New Titles
(added to the Journal Index in April / May )

**

Crustacea / Mollusks [top]
Egg / Milk [top]
  1. Beyer K, Castro R, Feidel C, Sampson HA ()Milk-induced urticaria is associated with the expansion of T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen J Allergy Clin Immunol
  2. Beyer K, Castro R, Birnbaum A, Benkov K, Pittman N, Sampson HA ()Human milk-specific mucosal lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract display a TH2 cytokine profile J Allergy Clin Immunol
  3. Mine Y, Zhang JW () Comparative Studies on Antigenicity and Allergenicity of Native and Denatured Egg White Proteins J Agric Food Chem
  4. Kokkonen J, Tikkanen S, Karttunen TJ, Savilahti E () A similar high level of immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G class milk antibodies and increment of local lymphoid tissue on the duodenal mucosa in subjects with cow’s milk allergy and recurrent abdominal pains Pediatric Allergy Immunol
  5. Sakaguchi H, Inoue R, Kaneko H, Watanabe M, Suzuki K, Kato Z, Matsushita S, Kondo N () Interaction among human leucocyte antigenpeptideT cell receptor complexes in cow’s milk allergy: the significance of human leucocyte antigen and T cell receptorcomplementarity determining region3 loops Clin Exp Allergy
Epidermals / Animal Proteins [top]
  1. Saarelainen S, Zeiler T, Rautiainen J, Narvanen A, Rytkonen-Nissinen M, Mantyjarvi R, Vilja P, Virtanen T () Lipocalin allergen Bos d 2 is a feeble immunogen Int Immunol
  2. Yamada A, Ohshima Y, Tsukahara H, Hiraoka M, Kimura I, Kawamitsu T, Kimura K, Mayumi M () Two cases of anaphylactic reaction to gelatin induced by a chloral hydrate suppository Pediatrics Int
Fish / Fowl / Meat [top]
  1. Swoboda I, Bugajska-Schretter A, Verdino P, Keller W, Sperr WR, Valent P, Valenta R, Spitzauer S () Recombinant Carp Parvalbumin, the Major Cross-Reactive Fish Allergen: A Tool for Diagnosis and Therapy of Fish Allergy J Immunol
Mushroom / Mould / Microflora / Yeast / Parasites [top]
  1. Dharmage S, Bailey M, Raven J, Abeyawickrama K, Cao D, Guest D, Rolland J, Forbes A, Thien F, Abramson M, Walters EH () Mouldy houses influence symptoms of asthma among atopic individuals Clin Exp Allergy
  2. Helbling A, Bonadies N, Brander KA, Pichler WJ () Boletus edulis: a digestion-resistant allergen may be relevant for food allergy Clin Exp Allergy
  3. Yamashita Y, Okano M, Yoshino T, Hattori H, Yamamoto T, Watanabe T, Takishita T, Akagi T, Nishizaki K () Carbohydrates expressed on Aspergillus fumigatus induce in vivo allergic Th2-type response Clin Exp Allergy
Fruit / Vegetables / Latex [top]
  1. Nettis E, Assennato G, Ferrannini A, Tursi A () Type I allergy to natural rubber latex and type IV allergy to rubber chemicals in health care workers with glove-related skin symptoms Clin Exp Allergy
  2. Diaz-Perales A, Sanchez-Monge R, Blanco C, Lombardero M, Carillo T, Salcedo G () What is the role of the hevein-like domain of fruit class I chitinases in their allergenic capacity?

    Clin Exp Allergy

  3. Sapan N, Nacarkucuk E, Canitez Y, Saglam H () Evaluation of the need for routine preoperative latex allergy tests in children Pediatr Int
  4. Kwaasi AAA, Harfi HA, Parhar RS, Saleh S, Collison KS, Panzani RC, Al-Sedairy ST, Al-Mohanna FA () Cross-reactivities between date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) polypeptides and foods implicated in the oral allergy syndrome Allergy
  5. Sutherland MF, Drew A, Rolland JM, Slater JE, Suphioglu C, O’Hehir RE () Specific monoclonal antibodies and human immunoglobulin E show that Hev b 5 is an abundant allergen in high protein powdered latex gloves Clin Exp Allergy
  6. O’Riordain G, Radauer C, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Adhami F, Peterbauer CK, Blanco C, Godnic-Cvar J, Scheiner O, Ebner C, Breiteneder H () Cloning and molecular characterization of the Hevea brasiliensis allergen Hev b 11, a class I chitinase Clin Exp Allergy
  7. Poulos LM, O’Meara TJ, Hamilton RG, Tovey ER ()Inhaled latex allergen (Hev b 1) J Allergy Clin Immunol
  8. Reider N, Kretz B, Menardi G, Ulmer H, Fritsch P () Outcome of a latex avoidance program in a high-risk population for latex allergy a five-year follow-up study Clin Exp Allergy
  9. Nieto A, Mazôn A, Pamies R, Lanuza A, Muñoz A, Estornell F, García-Ibarra F () Efficacy of latex avoidance for primary prevention of latex sensitization in children with spina bifida J Pediatr
  10. Kondo Y, Tokuda R, UrisuA, Matsuda T () Assessment of cross-reactivity between Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen and tomato fruit extracts by RAST inhibition and immunoblot inhibition Clin Exp Allergy
  11. Hourihane JO’B, Allard JM, Wade AM, McEwan AI, Strobel S () Impact of repeated surgical procedures on the incidence and prevalence of latex allergy: A prospective study of children J Pediatr
  12. de Castro C, Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Sastre J () Oral latex glove allergy Allergy
  13. Niggemann B, Reibel S, Hipler C, Wahn U () Anaphylactic reaction to lychee in ayear-old girl: Cross-reactivity to latex?

    Pediatric Allergy Immunol

  14. Raulf-Heimsoth M, Stark R, Sander I, Maryska S, Rihs HP, Bruning T, Voshaar T ()Anaphylactic reaction to apple juice containing acerola: Cross-reactivity to latex due to prohevein J Allergy Clin Immunol
  15. Alvarado MI, Moneo I, Gonzalo MA, Alvarez-Eire M, Diaz-Perales A () Allergy to azufaifa fruit and latex Allergy
  16. Sutherland MF, Suphioglu C, Rolland JM, O’Hehir RE () Latex allergy: towards immunotherapy for health care workers [review] Clin Exp Allergy
Cereals [top]
  1. Rozynek R, Sander I, Appenzeller U, Crameri R, Baur X, Clarke B, Bruning T, Raulf-Heimsoth M () TPIS an IgE-binding wheat protein Allergy
Legumes / Seeds / Nuts [top]
  1. Rabjohn P, West CM, Connaughton C, Sampson HA, Helm RM, Burks AW, Bannon GA () Modification of Peanut Allergen Ara h 3: Effects on IgE Binding and T Cell Stimulation Int Arch Allergy Immunol
  2. Sicherer SH ()Clinical update on peanut allergy Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol
  3. Sten E, Stahl Skov P, Andersen SB, Torp AM, Olesen A, Bindslev-Jensen U, Poulsen LK, Bindslev-Jensen C () Allergenic components of a novel food, Micronesian nut Nangai (Canarium indicum), shows IgE cross-reactivity in pollen allergic patients Allergy
Herbs / Spice [top]
  1. García-González JJ, Bartolomé-Zavala B, Fernández-Meléndez S, Barceló-Muñoz JM, Páez AM, Carmona-Bueno MJ, Vega-Chicote JM, Carrasco MAN, Godoy AA, Espinosa RP () Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and food allergy because of aniseed sensitization Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol
Food Additives / Environmental Contaminants [top]

*

Allergic Diseases [top]
  1. Macdougall CF, Cant AJ, Colver AF () How dangerous is food allergy in childhood?

    The incidence of severe and fatal allergic reactions across the UK and Ireland Arch Dis Kid

  2. Bhat K, Harper A, Gorard DA () Perceived food and drug allergies in functional and organic gastrointestinal disorders Aliment Pharmacol Ther
  3. Vartiainen E, Petys T, Haahtela T, Jousilahti P, Pekkanen J () Allergic diseases, skin prick test responses, and IgE levels in North Karelia, Finland, and the Republic of Karelia, Russia J Allergy Clin Immunol
  4. Portengen L, Sigsgaard T, Omland, Hjort C, Heederik D, Doekes G () Low prevalence of atopy in young Danish farmers and farming students born and raised on a farm Clin Exp Allergy
  5. Selnes A, Bolle R, Holt J, Lund E () Cumulative incidence of asthma and allergy in north-Norwegian schoolchildren in and Pediatric Allergy Immunol
  6. Toda M, Ono SJ () Genomics and proteomics of allergic disease [review]Immunol
  7. Krause TG, Koch A, Poulsen LK, Kristensen B, Olsen OR, Melbye M () Atopic sensitization among children in an Arctic environment Clin Exp Allergy
  8. von Linstow ML, Porsbjerg C, Ulrik CS, Nepper-Christensen S, Backer V () Prevalence and predictors of atopy among young Danish adults Clin Exp Allergy
Diagnostic / Immunologic Parameters [top]
  1. Kazemi-Shirazi L, Niederberger V, Linhart B, Lidholm J, Kraft D, Valenta R () Recombinant Marker Allergens: Diagnostic Gatekeepers for the Treatment of Allergy [review] Int Arch Allergy Immunol
  2. Bibi H, Shoseyov D, Feigenbaum D, Nir P, Shiachi R, Scharff S, Peled R () Comparison of positive allergy skin tests among asthmatic children from rural and urban areas living within little geographic area Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol
  3. Rhodius R, Wickens K, Cheng S, Crane J () A comparison of two skin test methodologies and allergens from two diverse manufacturers Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol
  4. Eysink PED, Bindels PJE, Stapel SO, Bottema BJAM, Van Der Zee JS, Aalberse RC () Do levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to foods predict the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies to cat, dog and/or mite?

    Clin Exp Allergy

  5. Ozawa Y, Chiba J, Sakamoto S () Association of HLA class II alleles with preference and intake of dairy milk Nutrition Res
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Food allergies can be more than annoying and inconvenient – they often pose a serious threat to one’s health.

Sometimes people are rushed to hospitals due to severe and sudden allergic reactions, and the most extreme cases may even finish fatally.

Such tragic cases are rare, but food allergies are in numerous parts of the world nonetheless seen as a serious public health issue.

American and European research shows that food allergies are reported to affect percent of adults and percent of children. In Norway, data on cases of serious food allergy reactions own since been collected and stored in a national register.

Since the birth of the Norwegian Food Allergy Register, more than cases of severe food allergy reactions own been reported by doctors across the country.

In most cases doctors also sent blood samples of their patients, which were analysed and checked for common food allergies by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

A report with data from a ten year survey of severe food allergy reactions reported to the Food Allergy Register was recently released.

“At least 60 percent of the reported cases were so severe that ambulances were called,” says researcher Ellen Namork, who authored the report with two colleagues.

Namork and her colleagues ponder the pool of collected data on allergies will lead to better awareness of the problem and improved labelling of food products.

Gender differences

The Norwegian Food Allergy Register also shows that women represent 60 percent of the reported cases of severe food allergy reactions.

Studies own shown that women are in general more likely to visit a doctor, even when pregnancy-related visits are excluded.

But Namork says that the gender discrepancy in their sample has little to do with men's and women’s willingness to seek medical assistance.

Nomark explains that the overrepresentation of females in severe allergic reactions is more likely about hormones.

She adds that similar gender differences are found in other European countries.

Cross-reaction allergy

For adults, most food allergy reactions are associated with nuts, hazelnuts in specific, and peanuts.

But the main problem may be pollen allergy.

“Ninety percent of the allergic reactions own to do with cross-reaction with birch pollen allergy,” says Namork.

Cross-reactions happen when one’s immune system mistakes structurally similar proteins from diverse sources. A person who is allergic to birch, for example, might experience allergic reactions when she eats food which contains proteins similar to those in birch pollen.

A unique register

The Norwegian register is unique in its comprehensiveness.

“There aren’t numerous excellent registers out there,” says the researcher.

She explains that it’s significant to own a national register to ensure an overview of what kinds of food people own allergic reactions to. This is arguably even more significant as the world is increasingly globalised and people get access to diverse foods.

“Similar registers are on their way in other countries,” says Namork.

Small children and young adults are overrepresented

Namork and colleagues’ data shows that young adults and little children are overrepresented in cases of severe food allergy reactions.

Children who are between zero and five years ancient own not fully developed immune systems, and thus they are in harm of reacting to food.

The most frequently reported food allergy reactions for these little children are egg and milk, allergies most kids leave behind as they grow up.

Young adults own better immune systems, but their explorative nature puts them at risk.

“They tend to go out a lot and as they go about they attempt new food,” says Namork, adding that alcohol consumption might also be a factor.

“Alcohol tends to exacerbate allergic reactions and lessen their awareness of what they eat.”

New insight

The cases of severe allergic reactions occasionally lead to new discoveries. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health’s report shows that persons who are allergic to peanuts own also reacted to lupine flour, which is often used in bakery products.

Every food products in Norway containing lupine are now labeled, to ensure safe food for allergic persons.

Fenugreek is another recently discovered allergen which can cause severe allergic reactions. Fenugreek is used as a herb, and its seeds as spice, often in curry spice mixes.

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To prevent a reaction, it is extremely significant to avoid sesame. Sesame ingredients can be listed by numerous unusual names.

Always read food labels and enquire questions about ingredients before eating a food that you own not prepared yourself.

Avoid foods that contain sesame or any of these ingredients:

  1. Sesame oil*
  2. Gingelly, gingelly oil
  3. Sim sim
  4. Sesame paste
  5. Tahini, Tahina, Tehina
  6. Sesamol
  7. Sesame seed
  8. Sesemolina
  9. Sesame flour
  10. Halvah
  11. Sesame salt
  12. Gomasio (sesame salt)
  13. Benne, benne seed, benniseed
  14. Sesamum indicum
  15. Til

*Studies show that most people with specific food protein allergies can safely eat highly refined oils made from those foods (examples include highly refined peanut and soybean oil).

However, because it is not refined, people who are allergic to sesame should avoid sesame oil.

Sesame in Spices or Flavorings

Sesame may also appear undeclared in ingredients such as flavors or spice blends. If you are unsure whether a product could contain sesame, call the manufacturer to enquire about their ingredients and manufacturing practices.

Spice mix and flavoring recipes are considered proprietary information.

The manufacturer may not be capable to share the entire ingredient list. Instead, enquire if sesame is specifically used as an ingredient.

Foods that May Contain Sesame

  1. Falafel
  2. Cereals (such as granola and muesli)
  3. Soups
  4. Dressings, gravies, marinades and sauces
  5. Turkish cake
  6. Pasteli (Greek dessert)
  7. Processed meats and sausages
  8. Sushi
  9. Goma-dofu (Japanese dessert)
  10. Flavored rice, noodles, risotto, shish kebabs, stews and stir fry
  11. Herbs and herbal drinks
  12. Crackers (such as melba toast and sesame snap bars)
  13. Chips (such as bagel chips, pita chips and tortilla chips)
  14. Snack foods (such as pretzels, candy, Halvah, Japanese snack stir and rice cakes)
  15. Hummus
  16. Bread crumbs
  17. Protein and energy bars
  18. Dipping sauces (such as baba ghanoush, hummus and tahini sauce)
  19. Tempeh
  20. Margarine
  21. Baked goods (such as bagels, bread, breadsticks, hamburger buns and rolls)
  22. Asian cuisine (sesame oil is commonly used in cooking)
  23. Vegetarian burgers

Allergens are not always present in these foods and products, but sesame can appear in surprising places.

Again, read food labels and enquire questions if you’re ever unsure about an item’s ingredients.


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