What does a sore throat from allergies feel like
Acute pharyngitis is the most common cause of a sore throat and, together with cough, it is diagnosed in more than million people a year in the United States.
Most cases are due to an infectious organism acquired from shut contact with an infected individual.
A number of diverse bacteria can infect the human throat. The most common is group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), but others include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Fusobacterium necrophorum.
- Streptococcal pharyngitis
Main article: Streptococcal pharyngitis
Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat is caused by a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). It is the most common bacterial cause of cases of pharyngitis (15–30%). Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, and large lymph nodes.
It is a contagious infection, spread by shut contact with an infected individual. A definitive diagnosis is made based on the results of a throat culture. Antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications (such as rheumatic fever) and speed recovery.
- Fusobacterium necrophorum
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a normal inhabitant of the oropharyngeal flora and can occasionally create a peritonsillar abscess. In one out of untreated cases, Lemierre’s syndrome occurs.
Diphtheria is a potentially life-threatening upper respiratory infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which has been largely eradicated in developed nations since the introduction of childhood vaccination programs, but is still reported in the Third World and increasingly in some areas in Eastern Europe.
Antibiotics are effective in the early stages, but recovery is generally slow.
A few other causes are rare, but possibly fatal, and include parapharyngeal space infections: peritonsillar abscess («quinsy abscess»), submandibular space infection (Ludwig’s angina), and epiglottitis.
These comprise about 40–80% of every infectious cases and can be a feature of numerous diverse types of viral infections.
- Infectious mononucleosis («glandular fever») is caused by the Epstein–Barr virus.
This may cause significant lymph-node swelling and an exudative tonsillitis with marked redness and swelling of the throat. The heterophile test can be used if this is suspected.
- The family Orthomyxoviridae which cause influenza are present with rapid onset high temperature, headache, and generalized ache. A sore throat may be associated.
- Adenovirus is the most common of the viral causes. Typically, the degree of neck lymph node enlargement is modest and the throat often does not appear red, although it is painful.
- Herpes simplex virus can cause multiple mouth ulcers.
- Common cold: rhinovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus can cause infection of the throat, ear, and lungs causing standard cold-like symptoms and often pain.
Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by fungal infection, such as Candida albicans, causing oral thrush.
Pharyngitis may also be caused by mechanical, chemical, or thermal irritation, for example freezing air or acid reflux.
Some medications may produce pharyngitis, such as pramipexole and antipsychotics.
The majority of the time, treatment is symptomatic. Specific treatments are effective for bacterial, fungal, and herpes simplex infections.
- Viscous lidocaine relieves pain by numbing the mucous membranes.
- Pain medication, such as NSAIDs and acetaminophen (paracetamol), can assist reduce the pain associated with a sore throat. Aspirin may be used in adults, but is not recommended in children due to the risk of Reye syndrome.
- Antibiotics are useful if a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. For viral infections, antibiotics own no effect.
In the United States, they are used in 25% of people before a bacterial infection has been detected.
- Steroids (such as dexamethasone) may be useful for severe pharyngitis. Their general use, however, is poorly supported.
- Oral analgesic solutions, the athletic ingredient is generally phenol, but also less commonly benzocaine, cetylpyridinium chloride, and/or menthol. Chloraseptic and Cepacol are two examples of brands of these kinds of analgesics.
See also: Alternative treatments used for the common cold
Gargling salt water is often suggested, but evidence of its usefulness is lacking.Alternative medicines are promoted and used for the treatment of sore throats. However, they are poorly supported by evidence.
Pharyngitis is a type of inflammation caused by an upper respiratory tract infection.
It may be classified as acute or chronic. Acute pharyngitis may be catarrhal, purulent, or ulcerative, depending on the causative agent and the immune capacity of the affected individual. Chronic pharyngitis may be catarrhal, hypertrophic, or atrophic.
Tonsillitis is a subtype of pharyngitis. If the inflammation includes both the tonsils and other parts of the throat, it may be called pharyngotonsillitis. Another subclassification is nasopharyngitis (the common cold).
Check if you own tonsillitis
Tonsillitis can feel love a bad freezing or flu.
The tonsils at the back of your throat will be red and swollen.
The main symptoms in children and adults are:
- hoarse or no voice
- a high temperature of 38C or above
- a sore throat
- feeling sick
- a headache
- difficulty swallowing
- feeling tired
Sometimes the symptoms can be more severe and include:
- white pus-filled spots on your tonsils at the back of your throat
- swollen, painful glands in your neck (feels love a lump on the side of your neck)
- bad breath
If you’re not certain it’s tonsillitis
Look at other sore throat symptoms.
Differentiating a viral and a bacterial cause of a sore throat based on symptoms alone is difficult. Thus, a throat swab often is done to law out a bacterial cause.
The modified Centor criteria may be used to determine the management of people with pharyngitis.
Based on five clinical criteria, it indicates the probability of a streptococcal infection.
One point is given for each of the criteria:
- Temperature more than °C (°F)
- Absence of a cough
- Tonsillar exudate or swelling
- Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
- Age less than 15 (a point is subtracted if age is more than 44)
The Infectious Disease Society of America recommends against empirical treatment and considers antibiotics only appropriate following positive testing. Testing is not needed in children under three, as both group A strep and rheumatic fever are rare, except if they own a sibling with the disease.
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Tonsillitis is a common childhood illness, but teenagers and adults can get it, too.
It generally goes away on its own after a few days.
Tonsillitis is a common childhood illness, but teenagers and adults can get it, too. It generally goes away on its own after a few days.