Bad allergies what to do

American Rhinologic Society

Through research, education, and advocacy, the American Rhinologic Society is devoted to serving patients with nose, sinus, and skull base disorders. Their website’s thorough coverage of sinus-related issues includes rarer conditions, such as fungal sinusitis, which are often excluded from other informational sites. It also provides a valuable search tool to discover a doctor, as well as links to other medical societies and resources that are useful for patients.

Cleveland Clinic

Their website contains an exhaustive guide on sinusitis and an easy-to-use «Find a Doctor» search tool.

ENThealth

ENThealth provides useful information on how the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) are all connected, along with information about sinusitis and other related illnesses and symptoms, such as rhinitis, deviated septum, and postnasal drip.

As part of the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery, this website is equipped with the ability to assist you discover an ENT specialist in your area.

Anaphylaxis: Severe Allergic Reactions


The Best Research Resources

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

This academy’s website provides valuable information to assist readers determine the difference between colds, allergies, and sinusitis. A primer guide on sinusitis also provides more specific information about the chronic version of the illness.

Additional resources include a «virtual allergist» that helps you to review your symptoms, as well as a database on pollen counts.

American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI)

In addition to providing a comprehensive guide on sinus infections, the ACAAI website also contains a wealth of information on allergies, asthma, and immunology. The site’s useful tools include a symptom checker, a way to search for an allergist in your area, and a function that allows you to ask an allergist questions about your symptoms.

Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA)

For allergy sufferers, the AAFA website contains an easy-to-understand primer on sinusitis.

It also provides comprehensive information on various types of allergies, including those with risk factors for sinusitis.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The CDC website provides basic information on sinus infections and other respiratory illnesses, such as common colds, bronchitis, ear infections, flu, and sore throat. It offers guidance on how to get symptom relief for those illnesses, as well as preventative tips on practicing good hand hygiene, and a recommended immunization schedule.

U.S. National Library of Medicine

The U.S. National Library of Medicine is the world’s largest biomedical library.

As part of the National Institutes of Health, their website provides the basics on sinus infection. It also contains a number of links to join you with more information on treatments, diagnostic procedures, and related issues.



What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Allergies?

The type and severity of allergy symptoms vary from allergy to allergy and person to person.

Bad allergies what to do

Allergies may show up as itchy eyes, sneezing, a stuffy nose, throat tightness, trouble breathing, vomiting, and even fainting or passing out.

Kids with severe allergies (such as those to food, medicine, or insect venom) can be at risk for a sudden, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can happen just seconds after being exposed to an allergen or not until a few hours later (if the reaction is from a food).

So doctors will desire anyone diagnosed with a life-threatening allergy to carry an epinephrine auto-injector in case of an emergency.

Epinephrine works quickly against serious allergy symptoms; for example, it reduces swelling and raises low blood pressure.

Other Common Allergens

  1. Chemicals. Some cosmetics or laundry detergents can make people break out in hives. Generally, this is because someone has a reaction to the chemicals in these products, though it may not always be an allergic reaction. Dyes, household cleaners, and pesticides used on lawns or plants also can cause allergic reactions in some people.
  2. Medicines. Antibiotics are the most common type of medicines that cause allergic reactions.

    Numerous other others, including over-the-counter medicines (those you can purchase without a prescription), also can cause allergic reactions.

  3. Insect allergy. For most kids, being stung by an insect means swelling, redness, and itching at the site of the bite. But for those with insect venom allergy, an insect sting can cause more serious symptoms.
  4. A drop of a purified liquid form of the allergen is dropped onto the skin and the area is scratched with a little pricking device.
  5. A little quantity of allergen is injected just under the skin.

    This test stings a little but isn’t painful.

Some kids also own what are called cross-reactions. For example, kids who are allergic to birch pollen might own symptoms when they eat an apple because that apple is made up of a protein similar to one in the pollen. And for reasons that aren’t clear, people with a latex allergy (found in latex gloves and some kinds of hospital equipment) are more likely to be allergic to foods likekiwi, chestnuts, avocados, and bananas.

How Do Allergies Happen?

An allergy happens when the immune system& overreacts to an allergen, treating it as an invader and trying to fight it off.

This causes symptoms that can range from annoying to serious or even life-threatening.

In an attempt to protect the body, the immune system makes antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies then cause certain cells to release chemicals (including histamine) into the bloodstream to defend against the allergen «invader.»

It’s the release of these chemicals that causes allergic reactions. Reactions can affect the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Future exposure to that same allergen will trigger this allergic response again.

Some allergies are seasonal and happen only at certain times of the year (like when pollen counts are high); others can happen anytime someone comes in contact with an allergen.

So, when a person with a food allergy eats that specific food or someone who’s allergic to dust mites is exposed to them, they will own an allergic reaction.

How Are Allergies Diagnosed?

Some allergies are fairly simple to identify but others are less obvious because they can be similar to other conditions.

If your kid has cold-like symptoms lasting longer than a week or two or develops a «cold» at the same time every year, talk with your doctor, who might diagnose an allergy and prescribe medicines, or may refer you to an allergist(a doctor who is an expert in the treatment of allergies) for allergy tests.

To discover the cause of an allergy, allergists generally do skin tests for the most common environmental and food allergens.

A skin test can work in one of two ways:

  • itchy, watery, or swollen eyes
  • A drop of a purified liquid form of the allergen is dropped onto the skin and the area is scratched with a little pricking device.
  • Pet allergens are caused by pet dander (tiny flakes of shed skin) and animal saliva. When pets lick themselves, the saliva gets on their fur or feathers. As the saliva dries, protein particles become airborne and work their way into fabrics in the home. Pet urine also can cause allergies in the same way when it gets on airborne fur or skin, or when a pet pees in a spot that isn’t cleaned.
  • Wheat. Wheat proteins are found in numerous foods, and some are more obvious than others.

    Although wheat allergy is often confused with celiac disease, there is a difference. Celiac disease is a sensitivity to gluten (found in wheat, rye, and barley). But a wheat allergy can do more than make a person feel ill — love other food allergies, it also can cause a life-threatening reaction.

  • throat tightness
  • A little quantity of allergen is injected just under the skin. This test stings a little but isn’t painful.
  • Pollen is a major cause of allergies (a pollen allergy is often calledhay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into the air to fertilize other plants. Pollen allergies are seasonal, and the type of pollen someone is allergic to determines when symptoms happen.

    Pollen counts measure how much pollen is in the air and can assist people with allergies predict how bad their symptoms might be on any given day. Pollen counts are generally higher in the morning and on warm, dry, breezy days, and lowest when it’s chilly and wet.

  • sneezing
  • swelling
  • Cockroaches are also a major household allergen, especially in inner cities. Exposure to cockroach-infested buildings may be a major cause of the high rates of asthma in inner-city kids.
  • hoarseness
  • Clean when your kid is not in the room.
  • trouble breathing
  • Cow’s milk(or cow’s milk protein). Between 2% and 3% of children younger than 3 years ancient are allergic to the proteins found in cow’s milk and cow’s milk-based formulas.

    Most formulas are cow’s milk-based. Milk proteins also can be a hidden ingredient in prepared foods. Numerous kids outgrow milk allergies.

  • Keep family pets out of your child’s bedroom.
  • a drop in blood pressure, causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness
  • hives
  • Remove carpets or rugs from your child’s room (hard floors don’t collect dust as much as carpets do).
  • wheezing
  • stuffy nose
  • Eggs. Egg allergy can be a challenge for parents. Eggs are used in numerous of the foods kids eat — and in numerous cases they’re «hidden» ingredients.

    Kids tend to outgrow egg allergies as they get older.

  • Peanuts and tree nuts. Peanut allergies are on the rise, and as are allergies to tree nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, hazelnuts, and cashews. Most people do not outgrow peanut or tree nut allergies.
  • Fish and shellfish. These allergies are some of the more common adult food allergies and ones that people generally don’t outgrow. Fish and shellfish are from diverse families of food, so having an allergy to one does not necessarily mean someone will be allergicto the other.
  • Keep kids who areallergic to mold away fromdamp areas, such as some basements, and hold bathrooms and other mold-prone areas clean and dry.
  • If your kid has a pollen allergy, hold the windows closed when pollen season is at its peak, own your kid take a bath or shower and change clothes after being outdoors, and don’t let him or her mow the lawn.
  • diarrhea
  • Don’t hang heavy drapes and get rid of other items that permit dust to build up.
  • Soy. Soy allergy is more common among babies than older kids.

    Numerous infants who are allergic to cow’s milk are also allergic to the protein in soy formulas. Soy proteins are often a hidden ingredient in prepared foods.

  • Use special covers to seal pillows and mattresses if your kid is allergic to dust mites.
  • coughing
  • Moldsare fungi that thrive both indoors and exterior in warm, moist environments. Outdoors, molds can be found in poor drainage areas, such as in piles of rotting leaves or compost piles. Indoors, molds thrive in dark, poorly ventilated places such as bathrooms and damp basements.

    Molds tend to be seasonal, but some can grow year-round, especially those indoors.

  • vomiting
  • Dust mites are microscopic insects that live every around us and feed on the millions of dead skin cells that drop off our bodies every day. They’re the main allergic component of home dust. Dust mites are present year-round in most parts of the United States and live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets.
  • stomachache
  • itchy nose and/or throat
  • coughing

After about 15 minutes, if a lump surrounded by a reddish area (like a mosquito bite) appears at the site, the test is positive.

Blood tests may be done instead for kids with skin conditions, those who are on certain medicines, or those who are extremely sensitive to a specific allergen.

Even if testing shows an allergy, a kid also must own symptoms to be diagnosed with an allergy.

For example, a toddler who has a positive test for dust mites and sneezes a lot while playing on the floor would be considered allergic to dust mites.

Who Gets Allergies?

The tendency to develop allergies is often hereditary, which means it can be passed below through genes from parents to their kids. But just because you, your partner, or one of your children might own allergies doesn’t mean that every of your kids will definitely get them. And someone generally doesn’t inherit a particular allergy, just the likelihood of having allergies.

Some kids own allergies even if no family member is allergic, and those who are allergic to one thing are likely to be allergic to others.

What Are Allergies?

Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people.

When a person is allergic to something, the immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harming the body.

Substances that cause allergic reactions — such as some foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens.

Allergies are a major cause of illness in the United States. Up to 50 million Americans, including millions of kids, own some type of allergy. In fact, allergies cause about 2 million missed school days each year.

How Are Allergies Treated?

There’s no cure for allergies, but symptoms can be managed.

The best way to manage with them is to avoid the allergens. That means that parents must educate their kids early and often, not only about the allergy itself, but also about the reactions they can own if they consume or come into contact with the allergen.

Telling every caregivers (childcare staff, teachers, family members, parents of your child’s friends, etc.) about your child’s allergy is also important.

If avoiding environmental allergens isn’t possible or doesn’t assist, doctors might prescribe medicines, including antihistamines, eye drops, and nasal sprays. (Many of these also are available without a prescription.)

In some cases, doctors recommend allergy shots(immunotherapy) to assist desensitize a person to an allergen.

But allergy shots are only helpful for allergens such as dust, mold, pollens, animals, and insect stings. They’re not used for food allergies.

Common Food Allergens

Up to 2 million, or 8%, of kids in the United States are affected by food allergies. Eight foods account for most of those: cow’s milk, eggs, fish and shellfish, peanuts and tree nuts, soy, and wheat.

  1. Peanuts and tree nuts. Peanut allergies are on the rise, and as are allergies to tree nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, hazelnuts, and cashews.

    Most people do not outgrow peanut or tree nut allergies.

  2. Fish and shellfish. These allergies are some of the more common adult food allergies and ones that people generally don’t outgrow. Fish and shellfish are from diverse families of food, so having an allergy to one does not necessarily mean someone will be allergicto the other.
  3. Eggs. Egg allergy can be a challenge for parents. Eggs are used in numerous of the foods kids eat — and in numerous cases they’re «hidden» ingredients. Kids tend to outgrow egg allergies as they get older.
  4. Soy. Soy allergy is more common among babies than older kids.

    Numerous infants who are allergic to cow’s milk are also allergic to the protein in soy formulas. Soy proteins are often a hidden ingredient in prepared foods.

  5. Cow’s milk(or cow’s milk protein). Between 2% and 3% of children younger than 3 years ancient are allergic to the proteins found in cow’s milk and cow’s milk-based formulas. Most formulas are cow’s milk-based. Milk proteins also can be a hidden ingredient in prepared foods. Numerous kids outgrow milk allergies.
  6. Wheat. Wheat proteins are found in numerous foods, and some are more obvious than others.

    Although wheat allergy is often confused with celiac disease, there is a difference. Celiac disease is a sensitivity to gluten (found in wheat, rye, and barley). But a wheat allergy can do more than make a person feel ill — love other food allergies, it also can cause a life-threatening reaction.

Food, Medicines, or Insect Allergy Symptoms

  1. diarrhea
  2. vomiting
  3. hoarseness
  4. swelling
  5. stomachache
  6. hives
  7. wheezing
  8. coughing
  9. throat tightness
  10. trouble breathing
  11. itchy, watery, or swollen eyes
  12. a drop in blood pressure, causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness

Allergic reactions can vary.

Sometimes, a person can own a mild reaction that affects only one body system, love hives on the skin. Other times, the reaction can be more serious and involve more than one part of the body. A mild reaction in the past does not mean that future reactions will be mild.

What Things Cause Allergies?

Airborne Allergies

To assist kids avoid airborne allergens:

  1. Use special covers to seal pillows and mattresses if your kid is allergic to dust mites.
  2. Clean when your kid is not in the room.
  3. Remove carpets or rugs from your child’s room (hard floors don’t collect dust as much as carpets do).
  4. If your kid has a pollen allergy, hold the windows closed when pollen season is at its peak, own your kid take a bath or shower and change clothes after being outdoors, and don’t let him or her mow the lawn.
  5. Don’t hang heavy drapes and get rid of other items that permit dust to build up.
  6. Keep family pets out of your child’s bedroom.
  7. Keep kids who areallergic to mold away fromdamp areas, such as some basements, and hold bathrooms and other mold-prone areas clean and dry.

Common Airborne Allergens

Some of the most common things people are allergic to are airborne (carried through the air):

  1. Moldsare fungi that thrive both indoors and exterior in warm, moist environments.

    Outdoors, molds can be found in poor drainage areas, such as in piles of rotting leaves or compost piles. Indoors, molds thrive in dark, poorly ventilated places such as bathrooms and damp basements. Molds tend to be seasonal, but some can grow year-round, especially those indoors.

  2. Dust mites are microscopic insects that live every around us and feed on the millions of dead skin cells that drop off our bodies every day.

    They’re the main allergic component of home dust. Dust mites are present year-round in most parts of the United States and live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets.

  3. Pet allergens are caused by pet dander (tiny flakes of shed skin) and animal saliva. When pets lick themselves, the saliva gets on their fur or feathers. As the saliva dries, protein particles become airborne and work their way into fabrics in the home. Pet urine also can cause allergies in the same way when it gets on airborne fur or skin, or when a pet pees in a spot that isn’t cleaned.
  4. Pollen is a major cause of allergies (a pollen allergy is often calledhay fever or rose fever).

    Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into the air to fertilize other plants. Pollen allergies are seasonal, and the type of pollen someone is allergic to determines when symptoms happen.

    Pollen counts measure how much pollen is in the air and can assist people with allergies predict how bad their symptoms might be on any given day. Pollen counts are generally higher in the morning and on warm, dry, breezy days, and lowest when it’s chilly and wet.

  5. Cockroaches are also a major household allergen, especially in inner cities.

    Exposure to cockroach-infested buildings may be a major cause of the high rates of asthma in inner-city kids.

Airborne Allergy Symptoms

Airborne allergens can cause something known as allergic rhinitis, which generally develops by 10 years of age, reaches its peak in the teens or early twenties, and often disappears between the ages of 40 and

Symptoms can include:

  1. itchy nose and/or throat
  2. sneezing
  3. stuffy nose
  4. coughing

When symptoms also include itchy, watery, and/or red eyes, this is called allergic conjunctivitis.

(Dark circles that sometimes show up around the eyes are called allergic «shiners.»)

Food Allergies

Kids with food allergies must completely avoid products made with their allergens. This can be tough as allergens are found in numerous unexpected foods and products.

Always read labels to see if a packaged food contains your child’s allergen. Manufacturers of foods sold in the United States must state in understandable language whether foods contain any of the top eight most common allergens.

This label requirement makes things a little easier. But it’s significant to remember that «safe» foods could become unsafe if food companies change ingredients, processes, or production locations.

Cross-contamination means that the allergen is not one of the ingredients in a product, but might own come into contact with it during production or packaging. Companies are not required to label for cross-contamination risk, though some voluntarily do so.

You may see statements such as «May contain…,» «Processed in a facility that also processes…,» or «Manufactured on equipment also used for ….»

Because products without such statements also might be cross-contaminated and the company did not label for it, it’s always best to contact the company to see if the product could contain your child’s allergen. Glance for this information on the company’s website or email a company representative.

Cross-contamination also can happen at home or in restaurants when kitchen surfaces or utensils are used for diverse foods.

How to Stay Healthy, Breathe Easier, and Feel Energetic This Winter

Indoor allergies, freezing weather, less sunlight — winter can make it hard to stay well mentally and physically.

Discover out how to protect yourself against seasonal allergies, the winter blahs, freezing winds, comfort-eating traps, and fatigue this year.

Learn More About the Ultimate Winter Wellness Guide

Sinusitis can be a confusing thing to treat for anyone. Because a sinus infection can be so easily confused with a common freezing or an allergy, figuring out the best way to alleviate your symptoms can be difficult.

Even more challenging, a sinus infection can evolve over time from a viral infection to a bacterial infection, or even from a short-term acute infection to a long-term chronic illness.

We own provided for you the best sources of information on sinus infections to assist you rapidly define your ailment and get the best and most efficient treatment possible.

After about 15 minutes, if a lump surrounded by a reddish area (like a mosquito bite) appears at the site, the test is positive.

Blood tests may be done instead for kids with skin conditions, those who are on certain medicines, or those who are extremely sensitive to a specific allergen.

Even if testing shows an allergy, a kid also must own symptoms to be diagnosed with an allergy.

For example, a toddler who has a positive test for dust mites and sneezes a lot while playing on the floor would be considered allergic to dust mites.

Who Gets Allergies?

The tendency to develop allergies is often hereditary, which means it can be passed below through genes from parents to their kids. But just because you, your partner, or one of your children might own allergies doesn’t mean that every of your kids will definitely get them. And someone generally doesn’t inherit a particular allergy, just the likelihood of having allergies.

Some kids own allergies even if no family member is allergic, and those who are allergic to one thing are likely to be allergic to others.

What Are Allergies?

Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people.

When a person is allergic to something, the immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harming the body.

Substances that cause allergic reactions — such as some foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens.

Allergies are a major cause of illness in the United States. Up to 50 million Americans, including millions of kids, own some type of allergy. In fact, allergies cause about 2 million missed school days each year.

How Are Allergies Treated?

There’s no cure for allergies, but symptoms can be managed.

The best way to manage with them is to avoid the allergens. That means that parents must educate their kids early and often, not only about the allergy itself, but also about the reactions they can own if they consume or come into contact with the allergen.

Telling every caregivers (childcare staff, teachers, family members, parents of your child’s friends, etc.) about your child’s allergy is also important.

If avoiding environmental allergens isn’t possible or doesn’t assist, doctors might prescribe medicines, including antihistamines, eye drops, and nasal sprays.

(Many of these also are available without a prescription.)

In some cases, doctors recommend allergy shots(immunotherapy) to assist desensitize a person to an allergen. But allergy shots are only helpful for allergens such as dust, mold, pollens, animals, and insect stings. They’re not used for food allergies.

Common Food Allergens

Up to 2 million, or 8%, of kids in the United States are affected by food allergies. Eight foods account for most of those: cow’s milk, eggs, fish and shellfish, peanuts and tree nuts, soy, and wheat.

  1. Peanuts and tree nuts. Peanut allergies are on the rise, and as are allergies to tree nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, hazelnuts, and cashews.

    Most people do not outgrow peanut or tree nut allergies.

  2. Fish and shellfish. These allergies are some of the more common adult food allergies and ones that people generally don’t outgrow. Fish and shellfish are from diverse families of food, so having an allergy to one does not necessarily mean someone will be allergicto the other.
  3. Eggs. Egg allergy can be a challenge for parents. Eggs are used in numerous of the foods kids eat — and in numerous cases they’re «hidden» ingredients. Kids tend to outgrow egg allergies as they get older.
  4. Soy. Soy allergy is more common among babies than older kids.

    Numerous infants who are allergic to cow’s milk are also allergic to the protein in soy formulas. Soy proteins are often a hidden ingredient in prepared foods.

  5. Cow’s milk(or cow’s milk protein). Between 2% and 3% of children younger than 3 years ancient are allergic to the proteins found in cow’s milk and cow’s milk-based formulas. Most formulas are cow’s milk-based. Milk proteins also can be a hidden ingredient in prepared foods. Numerous kids outgrow milk allergies.
  6. Wheat. Wheat proteins are found in numerous foods, and some are more obvious than others.

    Although wheat allergy is often confused with celiac disease, there is a difference. Celiac disease is a sensitivity to gluten (found in wheat, rye, and barley). But a wheat allergy can do more than make a person feel ill — love other food allergies, it also can cause a life-threatening reaction.

Food, Medicines, or Insect Allergy Symptoms

  1. diarrhea
  2. vomiting
  3. hoarseness
  4. swelling
  5. stomachache
  6. hives
  7. wheezing
  8. coughing
  9. throat tightness
  10. trouble breathing
  11. itchy, watery, or swollen eyes
  12. a drop in blood pressure, causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness

Allergic reactions can vary.

Sometimes, a person can own a mild reaction that affects only one body system, love hives on the skin. Other times, the reaction can be more serious and involve more than one part of the body. A mild reaction in the past does not mean that future reactions will be mild.

What Things Cause Allergies?

Airborne Allergies

To assist kids avoid airborne allergens:

  1. Use special covers to seal pillows and mattresses if your kid is allergic to dust mites.
  2. Clean when your kid is not in the room.
  3. Remove carpets or rugs from your child’s room (hard floors don’t collect dust as much as carpets do).
  4. If your kid has a pollen allergy, hold the windows closed when pollen season is at its peak, own your kid take a bath or shower and change clothes after being outdoors, and don’t let him or her mow the lawn.
  5. Don’t hang heavy drapes and get rid of other items that permit dust to build up.
  6. Keep family pets out of your child’s bedroom.
  7. Keep kids who areallergic to mold away fromdamp areas, such as some basements, and hold bathrooms and other mold-prone areas clean and dry.

Common Airborne Allergens

Some of the most common things people are allergic to are airborne (carried through the air):

  1. Moldsare fungi that thrive both indoors and exterior in warm, moist environments.

    Outdoors, molds can be found in poor drainage areas, such as in piles of rotting leaves or compost piles. Indoors, molds thrive in dark, poorly ventilated places such as bathrooms and damp basements. Molds tend to be seasonal, but some can grow year-round, especially those indoors.

  2. Dust mites are microscopic insects that live every around us and feed on the millions of dead skin cells that drop off our bodies every day. They’re the main allergic component of home dust. Dust mites are present year-round in most parts of the United States and live in bedding, upholstery, and carpets.
  3. Pet allergens are caused by pet dander (tiny flakes of shed skin) and animal saliva.

    When pets lick themselves, the saliva gets on their fur or feathers. As the saliva dries, protein particles become airborne and work their way into fabrics in the home. Pet urine also can cause allergies in the same way when it gets on airborne fur or skin, or when a pet pees in a spot that isn’t cleaned.

  4. Pollen is a major cause of allergies (a pollen allergy is often calledhay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into the air to fertilize other plants. Pollen allergies are seasonal, and the type of pollen someone is allergic to determines when symptoms happen.

    Pollen counts measure how much pollen is in the air and can assist people with allergies predict how bad their symptoms might be on any given day.

    Pollen counts are generally higher in the morning and on warm, dry, breezy days, and lowest when it’s chilly and wet.

  5. Cockroaches are also a major household allergen, especially in inner cities. Exposure to cockroach-infested buildings may be a major cause of the high rates of asthma in inner-city kids.

Airborne Allergy Symptoms

Airborne allergens can cause something known as allergic rhinitis, which generally develops by 10 years of age, reaches its peak in the teens or early twenties, and often disappears between the ages of 40 and

Symptoms can include:

  1. itchy nose and/or throat
  2. sneezing
  3. stuffy nose
  4. coughing

When symptoms also include itchy, watery, and/or red eyes, this is called allergic conjunctivitis.

(Dark circles that sometimes show up around the eyes are called allergic «shiners.»)

Food Allergies

Kids with food allergies must completely avoid products made with their allergens. This can be tough as allergens are found in numerous unexpected foods and products.

Always read labels to see if a packaged food contains your child’s allergen. Manufacturers of foods sold in the United States must state in understandable language whether foods contain any of the top eight most common allergens. This label requirement makes things a little easier. But it’s significant to remember that «safe» foods could become unsafe if food companies change ingredients, processes, or production locations.

Cross-contamination means that the allergen is not one of the ingredients in a product, but might own come into contact with it during production or packaging.

Companies are not required to label for cross-contamination risk, though some voluntarily do so. You may see statements such as «May contain…,» «Processed in a facility that also processes…,» or «Manufactured on equipment also used for ….»

Because products without such statements also might be cross-contaminated and the company did not label for it, it’s always best to contact the company to see if the product could contain your child’s allergen. Glance for this information on the company’s website or email a company representative.

Cross-contamination also can happen at home or in restaurants when kitchen surfaces or utensils are used for diverse foods.

How to Stay Healthy, Breathe Easier, and Feel Energetic This Winter

Indoor allergies, freezing weather, less sunlight — winter can make it hard to stay well mentally and physically.

Discover out how to protect yourself against seasonal allergies, the winter blahs, freezing winds, comfort-eating traps, and fatigue this year.

Learn More About the Ultimate Winter Wellness Guide

Sinusitis can be a confusing thing to treat for anyone. Because a sinus infection can be so easily confused with a common freezing or an allergy, figuring out the best way to alleviate your symptoms can be difficult.

Even more challenging, a sinus infection can evolve over time from a viral infection to a bacterial infection, or even from a short-term acute infection to a long-term chronic illness.

We own provided for you the best sources of information on sinus infections to assist you rapidly define your ailment and get the best and most efficient treatment possible.


Nearly one in 50 Americans are at risk for anaphylaxis

Some children are allergic to certain foods, medicines, insects and latex.

When they come into contact with these things they develop symptoms, such as hives and shortness of breath. This is known as an allergic reaction. Things that cause an allergic reaction are called allergens. Take every allergic symptoms seriously because both mild and severe symptoms can lead to a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis).

Causes of Anaphylaxis

Modulators of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

Anaphylaxis caused by radio-contrast media

Mild adverse reactions are experienced by approximately 5% of subjects receiving radio-contrast media. U.S. figures propose that severe systemic reactions happen in exposures with death in ,, exposures.

Food-induced anaphylaxis

The prevalence of food-induced anaphylaxis varies with the dietary habits of a region.

A United States survey reported an annual occurrence of cases per , person years. By extrapolating this data to the entire population of the USA, this suggests approximately 29, food-anaphylactic episodes each year, resulting in approximately 2, hospitalizations and deaths. Similar findings own been reported in the United Kingdom and France. Food allergy is reported to cause over one-half of every severe anaphylactic episodes in Italian children treated in emergency departments and for one-third to one-half of anaphylaxis cases treated in emergency departments in North America, Europe and Australia.

It is thought to be less common in non-Westernized countries. A study in Denmark reported a prevalence of cases of food anaphylaxis per , inhabitants per year with a fatality rate of approximately 5%.

Risk factors for food anaphylaxis include asthma and previous allergic reactions to the causative food.

Insects

Hymenoptera venoms (bee, wasp, yellow-jacket, hornet, fire ant) contain enzymes such as phospholipases and hyaluronidases and other proteins which can elicit an IgE antibody response.

B = Benadryl (diphenhydramine)

Antihistamines are not useful for the initial management of anaphylaxis but may be helpful once the patient stabilizes.

Diphenhydramine may be istered intravenously, intramuscularly or orally. Cimetidine offers the theoretical benefit of reducing both histamine-induced cardiac arrhythmias, which are mediated via H2 receptors, and anaphylaxis-associated vasodilation, mediated by H1 and H2 receptors. Cimetidine, up to mg every 6 to 8 hours, may be istered orally or slowly I.V. Doses must be adjusted for children.

Penicillin-induced anaphylaxis

One percent to 5% of courses of penicillin therapy are complicated by systemic hypersensitivity reactions.

Point two percent is associated with anaphylactic shock, and mortality occurs in % of the cases. If a patient has a strongly positive skin test or circulating IgE antibody to penicillin, there is a % risk of an anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent challenge. In patients with a case history suggestive of penicillin allergy and negative skin tests, the risk of anaphylaxis is extremely low. Atopy and mold sensitivity are not risk factors for the development of penicillin allergy.

C = Circulation

Minimize or eliminate continued exposure to causative agent by discontinuing the infusion, as with radio-contrast media, or by placing a venous tourniquet proximal to the site of the injection or insect sting.

Assess adequacy of perfusion by taking the pulse rate, blood pressure, mentation and capillary refill time. Establish I.V. access with large bore ( to gauge) catheter and ister an isotonic solution such as normal saline. A second I.V. may be established as necessary.

Bad allergies what to do

If a vasopressor, such as dopamine becomes necessary, the patient requires immediate transfer to an intensive care setting.

The same ABC mnemonic can be used for the pharmacologic management of anaphylaxis:

Narcotics

Narcotics are mast cell activators capable of causing elevated plasma histamine levels and non-allergic anaphylaxis. They are most commonly observed by anesthesiologists.

Cytoxic and Immune Complicated – Complement-Mediated Reactions

Miscellaneous

Examples of miscellaneous agents which cause anaphylaxis are insulin, seminal proteins, and horse-derived antitoxins, the latter of which are used to neutralize venom in snake bites.

Individuals who own IgA deficiency may become sensitized to the IgA provided in blood products. Those selective IgA deficient subjects ( of the general population) can develop anaphylaxis when given blood products, because of their anti-IgA antibodies (probably IgE-anti-IgA).

Exercise

Exercise alone can cause anaphylaxis as can food-induced anaphylaxis, Exercise-induced anaphylaxis can happen during the pollinating season of plants to which the individual is allergic.

Antibiotics and Other Drugs

PENICILLIN, CEPHALOSPORIN, AND SULPHONAMIDE ANTIBIOTICS

Penicillin is the most common cause of anaphylaxis, for whatever reason, not just drug-induced cases.

Penicillin and other antibiotics are haptens, molecules that are too little to elicit immune responses but which may bind to serum proteins and produce IgE antibodies. Serious reactions to penicillin happen about twice as frequently following intramuscular or intravenous istration versus oral istration, but oral penicillin istration may also induce anaphylaxis. Neither atopy, nor a genetic history of allergic rhinitis, asthma or eczema, is a risk factor for the development of penicillin allergy.

MUSCLE RELAXANTS

Muscle relaxants, for example, suxamethonium, alcuronium, vecuronium, pancuronium and atracurium, which are widely used in general anesthesia, account for % of every allergic reactions occurring during general anesthesia.

Reactions are caused by an immediate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction.

Sodium and Potassium Sulfites, Bisulfites, Metabisulfites, and Gaseous Sulfur Dioxides

These preservatives are added to foods and drinks to prevent discoloration and are also used as preservatives in some medications. Sulfites are converted in the acid environment of the stomach to SO2 and H2SO3, which are then inhaled. They can produce asthma and non-allergic hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals.

IgE-Mediated Reactions

B = Breathing

Assess adequacy of ventilation and provide the patient with sufficient oxygen to maintain adequate mentation and an oxygen saturation of at least 91% as sure by pulse oximetry.

Treat bronchospasm as necessary. Equipment for endotracheal intubation should be available for immediate use in event of respiratory failure and is indicated for poor mentation, respiratory failure, or stridor not responding immediately to supplemental oxygen and epinephrine.

Whole Blood, Serum, Plasma, Fractionated Serum Products, Immunoglobulins, Dextran

Anaphylactic responses own been observed after the istration of whole blood or its products, including serum, plasma, fractionated serum products and immunoglobulins. One of the mechanisms responsible for these reactions is the formation of antigen-antibody reactions on the red blood cell surface or from immune complexes resulting in the activation of complement.

The athletic by-products generated by complement activation (anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a) cause mast cell (and basophil) degranulation, mediator release and generation, and anaphylaxis. In addition, complement products may directly induce vascular permeability and contract smooth muscle.

Cytotoxic reactions can also cause anaphylaxis, via complement activation. Antibodies (IgG and IgM) against red blood cells, as occurs in a mismatched blood transfusion reaction, activate complement. This reaction causes agglutination and lysis of red blood cells and perturbation of mast cells resulting in anaphylaxis.

Sulfiting Agents

Elective Medical Procedures

Allergen immunotherapy

Idiopathic Causes

Foods

In theory, any food glycoprotein is capable of causing an anaphylactic reaction.

Foods most frequently implicated in anaphylaxis are:

  1. Shellfish (shrimp, crab, lobster, oyster, scallops)
  2. Peanut (a legume)
  3. Seeds (cotton seed, sesame, mustard)
  4. Tree nuts (walnut, hazel nut/filbert, cashew, pistachio nut, Brazil nut, pine nut, almond)
  5. Milk (cow, goat)
  6. Fish
  7. Chicken eggs
  8. Fruits, vegetables

Food sensitivity can be so severe that a systemic allergic reaction can happen to particle inhalation, such as the odors of cooked fish or the opening of a package of peanuts.

A severe allergy to pollen, for example, ragweed, grass or tree pollen, can indicate that an individual may be susceptible to anaphylaxis or to the oral allergy syndrome (pollen/food syndrome) (manifested primarily by severe oropharyngeal itching, with or without facial angioedema) caused by eating certain plant-derived foods.

This is due to homologous allergens found between pollens and foods. The main allergen of every grasses is profilin, which is a pan-allergen, found in numerous plants, pollens and fruits, and grass-sensitive individuals can sometimes react to numerous plant-derived foods.

Typical aero-allergen food cross-reactivities are:

  1. Mugwort pollen: celery, apple, peanut and kiwifruit
  2. Birch pollen: apple, raw potato, carrot, celery and hazelnut
  3. Ragweed pollen: melons (watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew) and banana
  4. Latex: banana, avocado, kiwifruit, chestnut and papaya

Food-associated, exercise-induced anaphylaxis may happen when individuals exercise within hours after ingesting a specific food.

The individual is, however, capable to exercise without symptoms, as endless as the incriminated food is not consumed before exercise. The patient is likewise capable to ingest the incriminated food with impunity as endless as no exercise occurs for several hours after eating the food.

Radiocontrast Media, Low-molecular Weight Chemicals

Mast cells may degranulate when exposed to low-molecular-weight chemicals. Hyperosmolar iodinated contrast media may cause mast cell degranulation by activation of the complement and coagulation systems. These reactions can also happen, but much less commonly, with the newer contrast media agents.

Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin and other Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs)

IgE antibodies against aspirin and other NSAIDs own not been identified.

Affected individuals tolerate choline or sodium salicylates, substances closely structurally related to aspirin but diverse in that they lack the acetyl group.

Non-immunologic Mast Cell Activators

Idiopathic Anaphylaxis

Flushing, tachycardia, angioedema, upper airway obstruction, urticaria and other signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis can happen without a recognizable cause. Diagnosis is based primarily on the history and an exhaustive search for causative factors. Serum tryptase and urinary histamine levels may be useful, in specific, to law out mastocytosis.

Symptoms and Signs of Anaphylaxis

The initial manifestation of anaphylaxis may be loss of consciousness.

Patients often describe "a sense of doom." In this instance, the symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are isolated to one organ system, but since anaphylaxis is a systemic event, in the vast majority of subjects two or more systems are involved.

Gastro-intestinal: Abdominal pain, hyperperistalsis with faecal urgency or incontinence, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

Oral: Pruritus of lips, tongue and palate, edema of lips and tongue.

Respiratory: Upper airway obstruction from angioedema of the tongue, oropharynx or larynx; bronchospasm, chest tightness, cough, wheezing; rhinitis, sneezing, congestion, rhinorrhea.

Cutaneous: Diffuse erythema, flushing, urticaria, pruritus, angioedema.

Cardiovascular: Faintness, hypotension, arrhythmias, hypovolemic shock, syncope, chest pain.

Ocular: Periorbital edema, erythema, conjunctival erythema, tearing.

Genito-urinary: Uterine cramps, urinary urgency or incontinence.

Severe initial symptoms develop rapidly, reaching peak severity within minutes.

There may occasionally be a quiescent period of 1–8 hours before the development of a second reaction (a biphasic response). Protracted anaphylaxis may happen, with symptoms persisting for days. Death may happen within minutes but rarely has been reported to happen days to weeks after the initial anaphylactic event.

After Anaphylaxis

  1. Sometimes, a reaction is followed by a second, more severe, reaction known as a biphasic reaction. This second reaction can happen within 4 to 8 hours of the first reaction or even later. That’s why people should be watched in the emergency room for several hours after anaphylaxis.
  2. Make a follow up appointment or an appointment with an allergy specialist to further diagnose and treat the allergy.

Epidemiology

Latex

Latex is a milky sap produced by the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

Latex-related allergic reactions can complicate medical procedures, for example, internal examinations, surgery, and catheterization. Medical and dental staff may develop occupational allergy through use of latex gloves.

Food-associated, exercise-induced anaphylaxis

This is more common in females, and over 60% of cases happen in individuals less than 30 years of age. Patients sometimes own a history of reacting to the food when younger and generally own positive skin tests to the food that provokes their anaphylaxis.

Catamenial Anaphylaxis

Catamenial anaphylaxis is a syndrome of hypersensitivity induced by endogenous progesterone secretion.

Patients may exhibit a cyclic pattern of attacks during the premenstrual part of the cycle.

Insect venom anaphylaxis

Studies from Australia, France, Switzerland and the USA propose incidences of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings ranging from % to 4% of the population. In the USA, at least 40 allergic deaths happen each year as a result of Hymenoptera stings.

Emergency Treatment of Anaphylaxis

A = Airway

Ensure and establish a patent airway, if necessary, by repositioning the head and neck, endotracheal intubation or emergency cricothyroidotomy. Put the patient in a supine position and elevate the lower extremities.

Patients in severe respiratory distress may be more comfortable in the sitting position.

Muscle relaxants

Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants occurs in approximately 1 in 4, of general anesthesia, with fatalities occurring in 6% of these cases. Risk factors are female sex (80% of cases). Atopy is not a risk factor; previous drug allergy may be a risk factor. In patients with a history of anaphylaxis, skin tests to diverse muscle relaxants may be helpful. If the test result is positive, the muscle relaxant should not be used.

A negative result provides evidence that the muscle relaxant can probably be istered safely.

A = Adrenalin = epinephrine

Epinephrine is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis. It stimulates both the beta-and alpha-adrenergic receptors and inhibits further mediator release from mast cells and basophils.

Bad allergies what to do

Animal and human data indicate that platelet activating factor (PAF) mediates life-threatening manifestations of anaphylaxis. The early use of epinephrine in vitro inhibits the release of PAF in a time-dependent manner, giving support to the use of this medication with the first signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. The usual dosage of epinephrine for adults is mg of a w/v solution given intramuscularly, preferably in the anterolateral thigh, every minutes or as necessary. The dose for children is mg/kg to a maximum of mg intramuscularly, preferably in the anterolateral thigh, every minutes as necessary. Lower doses, e.g., mg to mg istered intramuscularly, preferably in the anterolateral thigh, as necessary, are generally adequate to treat mild anaphylaxis, often associated with skin testing or allergen immunotherapy.

Epinephrine should be given early in the course of the reaction and the dose titrated to the clinical response. For severe hypotension, 1 cc of a , w/v dilution of epinephrine given slowly intravenously is indicated. The patient's response determines the rate of infusion.

C = Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids do not benefit acute anaphylaxis but may prevent relapse or protracted anaphylaxis. Hydrocortisone ( to mg) or its equivalent can be istered every 6 to 8 hours for the first 24 hours.

Doses must be adjusted for children.

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis for anaphylaxis includes:

  1. carcinoid syndrome
  2. respiratory difficulty or circulatory collapse, including vasovagal reactions
  3. overdose of medication
  4. foreign body aspiration
  5. hereditary angioedema
  6. globus hystericus
  7. cold urticaria
  8. cholinergic urticaria
  9. epiglottitis
  10. seizures
  11. pulmonary embolism
  12. pheochromocytoma
  13. myocardial infarction
  14. status asthmaticus
  15. hypoglycemia
  16. sulfite or monosodium glutamate ingestion

Upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, abdominal cramps, pruritus, urticaria and angioedema are absent in vasovagal reactions.

Pallor, syncope, diaphoresis and nausea generally indicate a vaso-vagal reaction but may happen in either condition.

If a reaction occurs during a medical procedure, it is significant to consider a possible reaction to latex or medication used for or during anesthesia.

Be Aware of Symptoms of Anaphylaxis

The symptoms of anaphylaxis may happen shortly after having contact with an allergen and can get worse quickly.

You can’t predict how your kid will react to a certain allergen from one time to the next. Both the types of symptoms and how serious they are can change. So, it’s significant for you to be prepared for every allergic reactions, especially anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis must be treated correct away to provide the best chance for improvement and prevent serious, potentially life-threatening complications.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis generally involve more than one part of the body such as the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, gut, and brain.

Some symptoms include:

  1. Stomach pain, vomiting or diarrhea
  2. Skin rashes and itching and hives
  3. Follow the steps in your child’s emergency care plan to give your kid epinephrine correct away. This can save your child’s life.
  4. Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  5. Dizziness and/or fainting
  6. Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing (whistling sound during breathing)
  7. After giving epinephrine, always call or a local ambulance service.

    Bad allergies what to do

    Tell them that your kid is having a serious allergic reaction and may need more epinephrine.

  8. Feeling love something terrible is about to happen
  9. Your kid needs to be taken to a hospital by ambulance. Medical staff will watch your kid closely for further reactions and treat him or her if needed.

Your child’s doctor will give you a finish list of symptoms.

Take Steps to Avoid Anaphylaxis

The best way to avoid anaphylaxis is for your kid to stay away from allergens. Teach your kid about his or her allergy in an age-appropriate way.

Teach your kid to tell an adult about a reaction, how to avoid allergens and how and when to use an epinephrine auto-injector. Here are some first steps you can take for each type of allergy:

Food. Learn how to read food labels and avoid cross-contact. Read the label every time you purchase a product, even if you’ve used it before. Ingredients in any given product may change.

Insect allergies. Wear closed-toe shoes and insect repellent when outdoors. Avoid loose-fitting clothing that can trap an insect between the clothing and the skin.

Medicine allergies. Tell your doctor about medicines your kid is allergic to.

Know both the generic and brand names of the medicines.

Latex allergies. Tell your doctors, dentists and other health care providers about your child’s latex allergy. Enquire them to put a note in your child’s medical chart about your child’s allergy. Also remind them of the allergy before any medical procedure or test.

For every allergies:  Educate family, friends, the school and others who will be with your kid about your child’s allergies. They can assist your kid avoid allergens and help if anaphylaxis occurs.

Reviewed by medical advisors June

Know How to Treat Anaphylaxis

  • After giving epinephrine, always call or a local ambulance service.

    Tell them that your kid is having a serious allergic reaction and may need more epinephrine.

  • Follow the steps in your child’s emergency care plan to give your kid epinephrine correct away. This can save your child’s life.
  • Your kid needs to be taken to a hospital by ambulance. Medical staff will watch your kid closely for further reactions and treat him or her if needed.

    Bad allergies what to do

Anaphylaxis: Synopsis

Updated: April,
Updated: September,
Originally Posted: July

Richard F. Lockey, MD
Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics and Public Health
Director of the Division of Allergy and Immunology
Joy McCann Culverhouse Chair of Allergy and Immunology
University of South Florida College of Medicine and the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital
Tampa, Florida, USA

This disease summary is provided for informational purposes for physicians only.

Definition of Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction, involving the release of mediators from mast cells, basophils and recruited inflammatory cells.

Anaphylaxis is defined by a number of signs and symptoms, alone or in combination, which happen within minutes, or up to a few hours, after exposure to a provoking agent. It can be mild, moderate to severe, or severe. Most cases are mild but any anaphylaxis has the potential to become life-threatening.

Anaphylaxis develops rapidly, generally reaching peak severity within 5 to 30 minutes, and may, rarely, final for several days.

Common Causes of Anaphylaxis

Foods.

The most common food allergies are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish. The most common food allergies in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat.

Insect stings from bees, wasps, yellow jackets and fire ants.

Latex found in things such as balloons, rubber bands, hospital gloves.

Medicines, especially penicillin, sulfa drugs, insulin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

Be Prepared for Anaphylaxis

Keep an Emergency Plan with You

You, your kid, and others who supervise or care for your kid need to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis and how to treat it.

Your child’s doctor will give you a written step-by-step plan on what to do in an emergency. The plan is called an allergy emergency care plan or anaphylaxis emergency action plan.

Bad allergies what to do

To be prepared, you, your kid, and others who care for your kid need to own copies of this plan.

About Epinephrine

Epinephrine is the medicine used to treat anaphylaxis. The emergency action plan tells you when and how to give epinephrine. You cannot rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis.

Know How to Use Epinephrine

Learn how to give your kid epinephrine. Epinephrine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector.

When you press it against your child’s outer thigh, it injects a single dose of medicine. Your child’s health care team will show you how to use it.

Bad allergies what to do

You, in turn, can teach people who spend time with your kid how to use it.

Always own two epinephrine auto-injectors near your kid. Do not store epinephrine in your car or other places where it will get too boiling or too freezing. Discard if the liquid is not clear, and replace it when it expires.

Prevention of Anaphylaxis

Agents causing anaphylaxis should be identified when possible and avoided. Patients should be instructed how to minimize exposure.

Beta-adrenergic antagonists, including those used to treat glaucoma, may exacerbate anaphylaxis and should be avoided, where possible.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may also increase susceptibility to anaphylaxis, particularly with insect venom-induced anaphylaxis.

Epinephrine is the drug of choice to treat anaphylaxis. Individuals at high risk for anaphylaxis should be issued epinephrine syringes for self-istration and instructed in their use. Intramuscular injection into the anterolateral thigh is recommended since it results in immediate elevation of plasma concentrations and has immediate physiological effects. Subcutaneous injection results in delayed epinephrine absorption.

Patients must be alerted to the clinical signs of impending anaphylaxis and the need to carry epinephrine syringes at every times and to use it at the earliest onset of symptoms. Unused syringes should be replaced when they reach their use-by/expiration date, as epinephrine content and bioavailability of the drug decreases in proportion to the number of months past the expiration date.

Pre-treatment with glucocorticosteroids and H1 and H2 antihistamines is recommended to prevent or reduce the severity of a reaction where it is medically necessary to ister an agent known to cause anaphylaxis, for example, radio-contrast media.

Other significant patient instructions include:

a) Personalized written anaphylaxis emergency action plan
b) Medical Identification (e.g., bracelet, wallet card)
c) Medical record electronic flag or chart sticker, and emphasis on the importance of follow-up investigations by an allergy/immunology specialist

Classification

The term anaphylaxis is often reserved to describe immunological, especially IgE-mediated reactions.

A second term, non-allergic anaphylaxis, describes clinically identical reactions that are not immunologically mediated. The clinical diagnosis and management are, however, identical.

Management

Allergy / immunology specialists frolic a uniquely significant role to confirm the etiology of anaphylaxis, prepare the patient for self istration of epinephrine, educate the patient and/or family about allergen avoidance, and law out any underlying condition, such as mastocytosis, which can predispose a patient to develop anaphylaxis.

Referral to an allergist / immunologist is indicated for patients with this disease.

If you feel love allergy season gets worse every year, you are not alone and you are not incorrect.

Climate change is a factor in the worsening seasons, experts tell.

«We own higher temperatures and increasing levels of carbon dioxide,» Dr. Jeffrey Demain, a board-certified allergist and immunologist, said at the March meeting of the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI).

«In those environments, studies own been done looking at what does this do for pollen because pollens are also critical when it comes to allergy symptoms as well as the development of allergy,» he said.

Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to increased levels of the proteins in pollen that cause allergies, according to Demain, who is part of the Allergy Asthma & Immunology Middle of Alaska.

«When you glance at a pollen grain, there are certain proteins that cause the allergy, they are the allergenic peptides,» he said. «It’s been shown that in rising carbon dioxide, the allergenic peptide of each pollen grain goes up.»

Carbon dioxide levels own also been «shown to increase the quantity of biomass and pollen production by a plant,» noted Demain.

Sneezing, coughing, congestion and red eyes are common sights in not just spring but also in drop and summer as millions of people are affected by seasonal allergies.

The allergy seasons throughout the year are getting longer, as much as 27 days longer than they were «even seven to 10 years ago,» increasing the chance for exposure to allergies, Demain said.

Another way climate change can cause allergies is through the mold that is left behind by flooding and severe storms, according to an AAAAI report.

«While every these [factors] are behind the curtain a little bit with what we’re seeing with climate change, they’re extremely genuine threats because 25 percent of our population has some form of allergic disease,» Demain said. «These are issues that are going to affect a vast number of people throughout the world.»

The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America — which describes itself as «the leading patient organization for people with asthma and allergies» — says climate change is a «serious threat» to public health, citing longer allergy seasons and worsening air quality caused by rising temperatures.

Five cities in the South and Southwest — McAllen, Texas, Louisville, Kentucky, Jackson, Mississippi, Memphis, Tennessee and San Antonio, Texas — top this year’s «most challenging places to live with spring allergies» list issued by the AAFA.

Under for five tips from the AAFA for the best ways to combat seasonal allergies, specifically this current spring season.

Solutions for spring allergies

1. Wear a cap and sunglasses when outdoors.

2. Hold your windows closed and use central air conditioning with air filtration.

3. Rinse the inside of your nose with a nasal rinse to flush out and remove pollens you own inhaled into your nasal passages.

4. Change and wash clothes worn during outdoor activities, and dry your laundry in a clothes dryer, not outdoors.

5. Remove your shoes before entering your home.

Anaphylaxis: Synopsis

Updated: April,
Updated: September,
Originally Posted: July

Richard F. Lockey, MD
Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics and Public Health
Director of the Division of Allergy and Immunology
Joy McCann Culverhouse Chair of Allergy and Immunology
University of South Florida College of Medicine and the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital
Tampa, Florida, USA

This disease summary is provided for informational purposes for physicians only.

Definition of Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction, involving the release of mediators from mast cells, basophils and recruited inflammatory cells.

Anaphylaxis is defined by a number of signs and symptoms, alone or in combination, which happen within minutes, or up to a few hours, after exposure to a provoking agent. It can be mild, moderate to severe, or severe. Most cases are mild but any anaphylaxis has the potential to become life-threatening.

Anaphylaxis develops rapidly, generally reaching peak severity within 5 to 30 minutes, and may, rarely, final for several days.

Common Causes of Anaphylaxis

Foods. The most common food allergies are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish.

The most common food allergies in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat.

Insect stings from bees, wasps, yellow jackets and fire ants.

Latex found in things such as balloons, rubber bands, hospital gloves.

Medicines, especially penicillin, sulfa drugs, insulin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

Be Prepared for Anaphylaxis

Keep an Emergency Plan with You

You, your kid, and others who supervise or care for your kid need to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis and how to treat it.

Your child’s doctor will give you a written step-by-step plan on what to do in an emergency. The plan is called an allergy emergency care plan or anaphylaxis emergency action plan. To be prepared, you, your kid, and others who care for your kid need to own copies of this plan.

About Epinephrine

Epinephrine is the medicine used to treat anaphylaxis. The emergency action plan tells you when and how to give epinephrine. You cannot rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis.

Know How to Use Epinephrine

Learn how to give your kid epinephrine. Epinephrine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector.

When you press it against your child’s outer thigh, it injects a single dose of medicine. Your child’s health care team will show you how to use it. You, in turn, can teach people who spend time with your kid how to use it.

Always own two epinephrine auto-injectors near your kid. Do not store epinephrine in your car or other places where it will get too boiling or too freezing. Discard if the liquid is not clear, and replace it when it expires.

Prevention of Anaphylaxis

Agents causing anaphylaxis should be identified when possible and avoided. Patients should be instructed how to minimize exposure.

Beta-adrenergic antagonists, including those used to treat glaucoma, may exacerbate anaphylaxis and should be avoided, where possible.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may also increase susceptibility to anaphylaxis, particularly with insect venom-induced anaphylaxis.

Epinephrine is the drug of choice to treat anaphylaxis. Individuals at high risk for anaphylaxis should be issued epinephrine syringes for self-istration and instructed in their use. Intramuscular injection into the anterolateral thigh is recommended since it results in immediate elevation of plasma concentrations and has immediate physiological effects. Subcutaneous injection results in delayed epinephrine absorption. Patients must be alerted to the clinical signs of impending anaphylaxis and the need to carry epinephrine syringes at every times and to use it at the earliest onset of symptoms.

Unused syringes should be replaced when they reach their use-by/expiration date, as epinephrine content and bioavailability of the drug decreases in proportion to the number of months past the expiration date.

Pre-treatment with glucocorticosteroids and H1 and H2 antihistamines is recommended to prevent or reduce the severity of a reaction where it is medically necessary to ister an agent known to cause anaphylaxis, for example, radio-contrast media.

Other significant patient instructions include:

a) Personalized written anaphylaxis emergency action plan
b) Medical Identification (e.g., bracelet, wallet card)
c) Medical record electronic flag or chart sticker, and emphasis on the importance of follow-up investigations by an allergy/immunology specialist

Classification

The term anaphylaxis is often reserved to describe immunological, especially IgE-mediated reactions.

A second term, non-allergic anaphylaxis, describes clinically identical reactions that are not immunologically mediated. The clinical diagnosis and management are, however, identical.

Management

Allergy / immunology specialists frolic a uniquely significant role to confirm the etiology of anaphylaxis, prepare the patient for self istration of epinephrine, educate the patient and/or family about allergen avoidance, and law out any underlying condition, such as mastocytosis, which can predispose a patient to develop anaphylaxis. Referral to an allergist / immunologist is indicated for patients with this disease.

If you feel love allergy season gets worse every year, you are not alone and you are not incorrect.

Climate change is a factor in the worsening seasons, experts tell.

«We own higher temperatures and increasing levels of carbon dioxide,» Dr. Jeffrey Demain, a board-certified allergist and immunologist, said at the March meeting of the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI).

«In those environments, studies own been done looking at what does this do for pollen because pollens are also critical when it comes to allergy symptoms as well as the development of allergy,» he said.

Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to increased levels of the proteins in pollen that cause allergies, according to Demain, who is part of the Allergy Asthma & Immunology Middle of Alaska.

«When you glance at a pollen grain, there are certain proteins that cause the allergy, they are the allergenic peptides,» he said. «It’s been shown that in rising carbon dioxide, the allergenic peptide of each pollen grain goes up.»

Carbon dioxide levels own also been «shown to increase the quantity of biomass and pollen production by a plant,» noted Demain.

Sneezing, coughing, congestion and red eyes are common sights in not just spring but also in drop and summer as millions of people are affected by seasonal allergies.

The allergy seasons throughout the year are getting longer, as much as 27 days longer than they were «even seven to 10 years ago,» increasing the chance for exposure to allergies, Demain said.

Another way climate change can cause allergies is through the mold that is left behind by flooding and severe storms, according to an AAAAI report.

«While every these [factors] are behind the curtain a little bit with what we’re seeing with climate change, they’re extremely genuine threats because 25 percent of our population has some form of allergic disease,» Demain said. «These are issues that are going to affect a vast number of people throughout the world.»

The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America — which describes itself as «the leading patient organization for people with asthma and allergies» — says climate change is a «serious threat» to public health, citing longer allergy seasons and worsening air quality caused by rising temperatures.

Five cities in the South and Southwest — McAllen, Texas, Louisville, Kentucky, Jackson, Mississippi, Memphis, Tennessee and San Antonio, Texas — top this year’s «most challenging places to live with spring allergies» list issued by the AAFA.

Under for five tips from the AAFA for the best ways to combat seasonal allergies, specifically this current spring season.

Solutions for spring allergies

1. Wear a cap and sunglasses when outdoors.

2. Hold your windows closed and use central air conditioning with air filtration.

3. Rinse the inside of your nose with a nasal rinse to flush out and remove pollens you own inhaled into your nasal passages.

4. Change and wash clothes worn during outdoor activities, and dry your laundry in a clothes dryer, not outdoors.

5. Remove your shoes before entering your home.


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